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16 Cards in this Set

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An expression of the relationship between the actual and standard reduction potential of a substance is the ____.
Nernst equation
____________ is the free energy of the elctrochemical proton gradient that forms during electron transport.
Proton motive force
The generation fo heat by muscular contraction of metabolic reactions is ______.
Thermogenesis.
The _____ are invaginations of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They contain _____ and ______.
cristae

ATP synthase and cytochromes
What is the Q cycle?
The cyclic flow of electrons involving a semiquinone intermediate in Complex III of mitochondrial electron transport.
What is the chemiosmotic theory?
The postulate that the free energy of electron transport is conserved in the formation f a transmembrane proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis.
What is an uncoupler?

Give an example.

How is uncoupling used biologically?
Allows the proton gradient to dissipate so it can't drive ATP synthesis.

dinitrophenolate ion picks up a proton and can diffuse through the membrane

uncoupling proteins in brown fat used in thermogenesis
__________ is a protein that carries electrons with a prosthetic Fe-containing heme group.
Cytochrome
What is the name of complex I?

What does it do?
NADH Dehydrogenase

transports 4H+ out of the mitochondrial matrix per 2e- transferred from NADH to coenzyme Q.
What is FMN?
Flavin mononucleotide acts as a prosthetic group for NADH hydrogenase (part of Complex I)
What is complex II?

What is special about it?
Succinate-coenzyme Q reductase AKA succinate dehydrogenase

It participates in both the TCA and the electron transport chain.

FADH2 from the TCA enters here and CoQ is reduced.
What is complex III?
coenzyme Q : cytochrome c — oxidoreductase

It catalyzes the reduction of cytochrome c by oxidation of CoQ and pumps out 4 protons
What is complex IV?
cytochrome c oxidase

It takes an e- from each of four cytochrome c molecules, & transfers them to one oxygen molecule, converting molecular oxygen to two molecules of water. It pumps out 4H+.
Where is cytochrome C?
Peripherallly associated with the membrane.
What components of the ETC contain a heme group?
Complex IV, Complex III and Cyt C
Rotenone scavenges electrons from complex I, so ubiquinone is not reduced by NADH. What effect would you observe?
Cofactors will not be able to flow down the ETC - oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis will decrease.