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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How the RENAISSANCE prepared the way for the Enlightenment (1)
There began in the Renaissance a questioning of the Christian understanding of the sinfulness of the human being, but also says that humans may be fundamentally good.
How the RENAISSANCE prepared the way for the Enlightenment (2)
1543- the beginning of the great age of science
How the RENAISSANCE prepared the way for the Enlightenment (3)
• This is the beginning of the undermining of the authority of the Christian church in Europe, because science is seen as an objective force of truth, shifting the concept of authority. Why should we trust religion when we can scientifically discern truth and everyone can see it, it is completely objective.
How the REFORMATION prepared the way for the Enlightenment (1)
• The Catholic Reformation showed that the Church did have a lot of problems and corruption and did need to clean up. They had an internal Reformation
How the REFORMATION prepared the way for the Enlightenment (2)
Christianity had been dominant for a long time in the West. The Enlightenment challenged that and replaced Christianity as the dominant intellectual force in the Western World
How the REFORMATION prepared the way for the Enlightenment (3)
Protestantism broke the religious authority of the Catholic church, undermining the confidence of the people in religion, there is diversity in religion. If the religious experts could not agree (doctrinal diversity), who could they listen to?
How the REFORMATION prepared the way for the Enlightenment (4)
Wars of Religion—if the best religion can do is provoke people into killing each other, there must be a better way (Catholics and Protestants were fighting)
How the REFORMATION prepared the way for the Enlightenment (5)
Territorialism, nationalism and politics were all coming about
During the Seventeenth Century, ________ comes about and there is obsession with ____________
skepticism, epistemology
What breeds skepticism?
Why did people gravitate towards epsitemology in the seventeenth century?
They were confused, and wanted to know how to become unconfused. Religion was no longer the first source for knowledge, and people wanted to know the truth and what to believe.
What are the two movements in discerning epistemology?
Rationalism and empiricism
What is rationalism?
Truth is to be found through the mind, by logic, philosophy.
What is empiricism?
Your senses reveal what is true.
When was the Enlightenment in Europe?
Who named the Enlightenment?
Kant, in an essay in 1748
The Enlightenment had thinkers who...
did not want to find the truth through Scripture, and did not want to follow the church. However, it became overly anti-religious
Diderot said, "With the guts of the last priest let us...
strangle the last king."
Rene Descartes is the founder of...
rationalism, because he was afraid that people wouldn't simply believe the Bible anymore
"Cogito Ergo Sum"
I think, therefore I am
Methodological Skepticism
I have to show that reason can believe with things that are absolutely certain and cannot be doubted. Guesses are no good, we need to discern absolute truth
Even mathematics is not certain enough, because...
there is a possibility that we have been deceived by some sort of force.
From Augustine, "Dubito Ergo Sum"
you must be existent in order to doubt (against skepticism)
The problem of the external world is that
what goes on inside your brain does not tell you anything about what goes outside your brain.outside world is not able to be discerned with logic
Truisms are...
something that is true by definition
“All bachelors are unmarried men.”
There is a definition for bachelor, but it doesn't tell you if they actually exist.
John Locke was the founder of
Empiricism, in the eigteenth century
The senses are not an absolute way to knowledge...
You have faith in your senses, but how can we be sure that they're not deceived?
Hume says that your mind takes things, perceives them, and puts them into catergories. THerefore
you can only be sure of your perceptions. He became a skeptic.
David Hume
Skeptic, 1711-1776
Immanuel Kant
1724-1804, gave Enlightenment a new life
What became more prominent because of Kant?
Philosophy went from ________ to _______ because of Kant
accessible, difficult/abstract
What are Kant's two worlds?
phenomonal-the one you see/is accessible.
neumenal-not accessible to senses
Kant's philosophy killed _______ and turned away from _______
skepticism, metaphysics