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25 Cards in this Set

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What is Folding
Earth movements pushing the edges of the crust into smaller area; pressure caueses buckling and wrinkling resulting in parallel ridges
Faulting
Caused by a fracture in the earth with pressure on one or both sides. side with the heavier push usually goes downward and gets melted as magma. The lighter side usually gets lifted out of the ground.
volcanism
fractures beneath the crust extending into the mantle may cause magma to exude as lava.
Pangea Theory
the crust of the earth is separeted into seven major plates and several smaller ones. they used to be one big continent called Pangea. The began to move apart and move at 1 to 16 cm per year
Soil Cycle
A seed germinates, emerges as a seedling, grows to a sapling, then to a tree. it drops leaves that fertilize the area, & at its death will decompose and give more nutrients back to the earth.
soil horizon
name them:
Little Danny Has Two Surf Boards
identified layers of soil
litter, duff, humus, topsoil, subsoil, bedrock,
litter
freshly fallen deris from trees & plants which have not been broken down
duff
broken and clumped leaves, twigs, etc. onding starts to take place and insects are mostly absent from this layer
humus
FBI at work (fungus bacteria and invertabrates) has aroma of soil because of decomposition
topsoil
rich organic blend from above with minerals, nutrients, weight, and bulk from lower layers
subsoil
broken rock, grit, and sand that seems to float to the surface blending with humus to create topsoil
bedrock
the solid rock surface or boulder formation that lay below the surface of all layers
erosion
constant changes on the surface of earth by environmental factors
water erosion
the transportation of the earth's placed material through water. will loosen and carry deris caused by weathering.
weathering
process of breaking down wrodk by such forces as water, ice, chemicals, growing plants, and changing temperatures
water intrusion
water freezes in cracks of rocks causing expansing. splitting or crumbling results
plant intrusion
plants roots will expand in the fractures in rocks causing them to split or crumble. lichens produce acid that deteriorates the rock
wind erosion
wind will change the landscape by physically moving material and depositing it elsewhere and by sculting or sandblasting
compaction
human impact - soil being compressed enough to squeeze out all traces of oxygen. leads to water erosion. like old wagon roads
glaciers
thought to be snowflakes that have lost the characteristics and compressed by its own massive weight to produce ice. under its own weight behaves more fluid than solid.
MOHS scale
named for German mineralogist Friedrich Mohs in 1812. determines the hardness of rocks and minerals from 1 (soft) to 10 (hard)
lichens
small plant-like organisms which grow where nothing else will. made up of two organisms: fungi (holds and protests) and alga (produces food)
crust
outermost solid layer of earth mostly crystalline rock and only a few miles deep
mantle
layer of earth below the crust and above the core made of solid molten rock
core
center of the earth believed to consist of compressed nickel & iron