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90 Cards in this Set

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blood circulatoin
blood exchances teh heart via arteries, which branch reperadtly until they become tiny capillaries. as oxygen deficcient blood leaves teh capillary beds. it flows into veins
components
blood is sepcalized type of ct in which living blood cells, the formed elements, are suspeneded in a nonliving fluid matrix called plasma
RBC
most of the reddish mas at the botto m of the tube is erythrocytes, red blood cells that transport oxygen.
buffy coat
thin, whitish layer, present at the erythrocye-plasma junction. contains leukocytes, that act in various ways to protect the body, and platelets (cell fragments that help stop bleeding)
hematocrit
erythrocytse noramlly constitute about 45 % of total volume of a blood sample, a percent known as this
plasma
straw colored, stickly fluid. contains over 100 different dissolved solutes. plasma proteins serve as a variety of functions, but they are NOT taken up by cells to be used as fuels or metabolic nutrients as are most other plasma solutes, such as glucose, fatty acids and amino acids
albumin
accounts for some 60% of plasma protein. acts as carrier to shuttle certain molecueles through circulation, imptoratn blood buffer, major blood protein contributing to the plasma osmotic pressure
formed elements
erythrocytes, lekocytes, and platelet. unusual features: two or there not even true cells; only leukocytes...most of formed elemeents survive in blood stream only few days...most blood cells do not divide. instead, they are continuously renewed by division of cells in bonemarrow, where they orginate.
erythrocytes or red blood cells
small cells, about 7.5 mm in diatmeter. shaped like biconcave discs- flattened discs with depressed centers- appera lighter in color at theri thin centers than at theri edges...lack a nucleus (anucleate) no orangelles. bags of hemoglobin, the RBC that functins in gas trasnport...biconcave discs maintained by network of proteisn, called spectrin
hemoglobin
protein that makes red blood cells red, binds easily and reverible with oxygen, and most oxygen carried in blood is bound to hemoglobin.
globin
hemoglobin madeo f up the protein globin bound to the red heme pigment.
oxyhemoglobin
when oxygen binds to iron, the hemoglobin, now caleld this, assume a new three dimensional shape and becomes ruby red.
deoxyhemoglobin
oxygen deteaches from iron, ehmoglobin resumes former shape, and results in thins, or reduced hemoglobin, becomes dark red
carbaminohemoglobin
occurs more readily when hemoglobin is in the reduced staet ...in tissues, and direction of trasnport is from tissue to lungs, where carbon dioxide is eliminated from body. 20% carbon dioxide trasnprted in the blood combines with hemoglobin, but it binds to globisn amino acids rather than the group
hematopoiesis/ hemopoiesis
blood cell formation is reffered to as this. occurs in red bone marrow, which is composed laregly of a soft network of retcular ct boardering on wide blood capillaries called blood sinusoids. within network are immature blood cells, macrophages, fat cells and reticular cells (secrete the fibers)
hemotopoetic steam cell or stem cell or hemocytoblast
resides in the red bone marrow. maturation pathways differs, and once a cell is commited to a specific blood cell pathway, it cannot change.
erythropoeissi
erythrocyte production, begins when a hemocytoblast descendent called a lmyeloid steam cells i transformed into a proerythroblast...give rise to early (basophilic) erythroblasts that produce huge numbers of ribosomes.
late erythroblast
hemoglbin synthesis and iron occumualation occur as teh early erythroblast is transformed into this and then normoblast.
reticulocyte
young erythrocyte, so named becasue it setill contains a scant reticulum of clumped ribosomes.
reticulocyte counts
provide a rough index of the rate of RBC formation- reticulocyte idex of teh rate of RBC formation- reticulocyte counts below or above this percentage range indicate abnormal rates of erythrocyte formation
erythroprotein (EPO)
direct stimulus for erythrocyte formation is provided by this, a glcoprotein hormone.
bloodborne erythroprotein
stimules red bone marrow cells that are already commited to becoming erythrocytes, causing them to mature more rapidly
testosterone
male sex hormone, also enhances EPO production by the kidneys.
ferratin and hemosiderin
free iron ions are toxic, iron is stored inside cells as protein-iron compelxes such as thsese.
trasnferrin
in blood, iron is transported loosely bound to a transport protein called this, and developing erythrocytes take up iron as needed to form hemoglobin
bilirubin
balance of the heme group is degraded to this, a yellow pigment that is released to teh blood and binds to albumin for trasnport
urobilogen
bilirubin is picked up by liver cells, which in turn secrete it into the intenstine, where is is metabolized to this. ..most of degraded pigment leaves teh body in feces, as a brown pigment called stercobilin
haptoglobin
released hemoglobin is captured by the plasma protein, haptoglobin and teh complex is phagocytized by machrophages
anemia
lacking blood, condition in which the blood has abnoramlly low oxygen-carrying capcity. SIGN of some disorder rather than a disease in and of itself.
hemorrhagic anemias
result from blood loss...rapid, treated by blood replacement
hemolytic anemies
RBC rupture, or lyse, prematurely
aplastic anemia
result from destruction or ihibition of the red marrow by certain drugs and chamicals, ionixing radition, or viurues. because marrow destruciton impares formation of ALL formed elements, anemia is just one of its signs.
iron deficiency anemia
a secondary result of hemorrihagic anemias, but it also results from inadequate intake fo iron containing foods and imparied iron absorption
microcytes
erythrocytes produced, small and pale
athletes anemia
iron defincy, is reserved as blood components return to physiological levels within a week or so after resuming a normal level of activity
prenicious anemia
due to deficiency of vital B 12
instrinsic factor
produced by teh stomach mucosa, must be present for vitamin B 12 to be absored by intestinal cells.
macocytes
devloping RBC grow but do not divide, and large pale cells called this result
thalessemias
people of mediterranean ancestry, such as greeks and italians. RBC are thin, delicate and defcient in hemoglobin.
sickle cell anemia
havoc caused by the abnormal hemoglobin, hemoglobin S (HbS) results from a chance in ust one of the 287 amino acids i a beta chain of the globin moleucle
hydroxyurea
a drug used to treat chronic leukemia, does just that
polychythemia
abnormal excess of RBC that increase blood viscocsity, causing it to be sludge or flow slugglishly
polycythemia vera
bone marrow cancer, characterized by dizziness and an exceptionally high RBC count
secondary polycythemias
result when less oxygen is avaliable or EPO production increaes.
blood doping
praticed by some athletes competing in aerobic events, is artifically induced polycythemia.
leukocytes or WBC
only fored elements that are complete cells, with nuclei and the usual organelles. less than 1 % of total blood volume
diapedesis
WBC slip are able to slip out of capillary blood vessels- a process called this- and teh circulatory syste is simply theri means of trasnpoprt to areas of teh body where they are needed to mount inflammatory or ummune reponses
amoeboid motion
once out of teh bloodsteam, leukocytes move through the tissue spaces by this
positive chemotaxis
by following chemical trail of molecules released by damaged cells or other leukocytes, a phenomenon called this, can pinpoint areas of tissue damage and infection and gather there in large numbres to destroy foreign substances or dead cells
leukocytosis
WBC count over 11,000
granulocytes
contain obvious membrane bound cytoplasmic organels...neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils, are all roughhy sperical in shape.
agrnulocytes
lack obvious granules
neutrophils
the most numerous of the white blood cells, accoint for 50-70% of WBC population. netrophils are about twice as large as RBC...take up basic blue and acicidc red dyes.
defensins
others, especially the smaller granules, content a potent brew of antimicrobial proteins
polymorphonuclear leukocytes or polys
consists of three to six lobes. nuclear varibility
respiratory burst
oxygen is actively metabolized to produce potent germ killer oxidizing substances such as blech and hydrogen peroxide, and defensin mediated lysis occurs.
esoinophils
account for 2-4 % of all leukocytes and are approximately the size of neutrophils. counterattack aganist parasitic worm, such as flatworm and roundworms that are too larege to be pahgocytized
basophils
rarest white blood cells...cytoplasms contains alrge, coarse histamine containign granules that have an affinity for the basic dyes and stain purplish black. histamine is an inflammatory chemical that acts as a vasodilator and attacks other white bloodcells to teh inflamed site,
mast cells
granulated cells similar to bsiphils, found in CT
agraunolytes
include lymphocytes and monocytse, WBCs that lack visible cytoplasmic granulues.
lymphocytes
25 % or more of teh WBC population, are the second most numerous leukocytes in the blood. large, dark purple nucleus that occupies most of teh cell volume. spherical and slightly indented, thin rim of pal eblue cytpplasms
T cells
functions in teh immune response by acting direclty aganist virus-infected cells and tumor cells
B cells
give rise to plams acells, which produce antibodies (immunoglobulins) that are released to teh blood
monocytes
which accunt for 3-8 % of WBC> largest leukocytes...abundant pale blue cytoplasm darkly staining purple nucleus, U or kidney shaped
macrogphaes
when circulating monocytes leave the bloodstream and enter the tissues, differentinate into these. with appetites. actively phagocytic, crucial in bodys defense aganist viruses, certain intracellular bacterial parasites, and chronic infections such as tuberculosis.
leukopoiesis
production of white blood cells, is stimulated by chemical messengers.
interleukins and colony-stimulating factors or CFS
these messengers, which can act either as paracrines or hormones, are glycoproteins that fall into two facies calle dthis. are numbered where more are named. granulocytes CSF stimulates production of granulocytes.
lymphoid stem cells
produce lymphocytes, from teh meyloid stem cells, which give rise to all other formed elements.
myeloblats
accumulates lysosomes, becomign promyelocytes
myelocyte
cell division stops
band cell
nuclei arc, produce this.
promonocyte
cells folowing monocyte line pass through this before leaving the bone marrow and becoming monocytes
lymphoblasts and prolymphocyte
lymphocytes derive from teh lymphoid stem cell and progress through this.
leukopenia
abnormal low white blood cell count, comonly induced by drugs, particuary in glucoortocid and anticarner agents
leukemia
white blood, refers to groups of canceoru sconditions involving whit eblood cells...leukocytes membrane of single clone that remain unsepcalized and proliferate out of contorl, imparing normal bone arrow function.
myelocytic leukemia
involves myeloblast descendts
myphocytic leukemia
involves lymphocytes
acute
leukemia is this (quickly advancing) if it derves from blast type cells like lymphoblasts, and chronic (slowly advancing) if it involves proliferatiion of later cells stages like myeolocytes.
infectious mononucleosis
once called the kissing disease, highly contagious viral diseas most often seen in young adults. caused by epstein barr virus, its hallmark is excessive numbers of argunlocytes, many of which are atypical
platelets
not cells in the strict sense
megakaryocytes
one fourth of diameter of lymphocyte, they are cytoplasmic fragments of extraordinarily larege cells called this.
thrombopoietin
platelet formation is regulated by a homrone called this.
megakaryoblast
in this line, repeated mitosis of megakaryoblast occur, but cytokinesis does not
homeotasis
stoppage of bleeding
vascular spasm
include direct injury to vascular smooth muscle, chemicals released by endothelial cells and platelets, and refelxes initiated by local pain receptors.
serotonin
enhance the vascualr spams
adenosin diphosate
attract more platelets to teh area and cause tehm to releease their contents
thromboxane A2
a short lived postaglandin derivative that is genrated and released, stimulates both events
prostacyclin
limiting the platlet plug to teh immediate area where is is needed is teh task of this, produced by intact endothelial cells that is a strong inhibitor of platelet aggregation.
coagulation or blood clotting
blood is transformed from a liquid to a gel, is amultistep process that leads to its cricially importan last three phaes: prothrobin activator is formed...converts a plasma protein called prothrobin into thrombin, an enzyme...thrombin catalyzes the joining of fibrinogen molecules present in plasma to a fibrin mesh, which traps blood cells and effectively seals the hole until the blood vessels can be permanelty repaired.