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124 Cards in this Set
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 Back
The null hypothesis asserts that

any observed difference was created by random sampling errors. It states that the null hypothesis states that the observed difference is an illusion created by random sampling

The chi square is the usual test of the

null hypothesis for differences between frequencies

df stands for

degrees of freedom

the values of the chi square and degrees of freedom were calculated solely to obtain .....

the probability that the null hypothesis is correct.

Are the chi square and the df descriptive statistics that a consumer should try to interpret?

No

What are the substeps in the mathematical procedure for obtaining the value of p?

Chi square and df

What should you interpret from this equation x2 = 4.00, df =1, p <.05
The probability (p) is less than .05 . 
There for the null hypothesis should be thrown out or believed to be untrue

When the probability is less than ______, it should be rejected

.05 or 5 in 100

What should we gather form this equation x2 = 4.00, df =1, p >.05

The probability is greater than 5 in 100 (or .05)

The decision rule states that p must be equal to or less than

.05 for the rejection of the null hypothesis

This is an analysis in which each participant is classified in terms of two variables in order to examine the relationship between them.

Bivariate analysis

This is the act of rejecting a null hypothesis when it is in fact a correct hypothesis

Type I Error

This is the act of failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is in fact an incorrect hypothesis

Type II Error

One way to describe quantative data is to prepare a _____ _____

Frequency distribution

With graphing, when a very large sample is used, the curve becomes (more ridged or more smooth)

More smooth

What is another name for the smooth bell shaped curve?

Normal curve

What is the most frequently used average

Mean

This is the balancing point in a distribution

Mean

How do you determine the mean?

Add up and divide by the number of items

When discussing the mean M represents_________ and m represents ________

M = mean of the population m = mean of the sample

This is the value around which the deviations sum to zero

This is the formal definition of mean

What is the major drawback of using mean?

It is drawn in the direction of extreme scores

What is used to find the average when there are extreme scores?

Median

______ is defined as the middle score

Median

How do you find the median?

Line all numbers up to zero and count to the middle number

This is the most frequently occurring number

Mode

What is the synonym for the term “averages?”

Measures of central tendency

Often a set of scores is described with only two statistics, ______ and ________. ______ is used to describe the average and _______ is used to describe variability

Mean and standard deviation / mean and standard deviation

This refers to the amount by which participants vary or differ from each other

Variability

If a distribution is normal _______ of the participants in the distribution lie within one standard deviation unit of the mean

68%

The smaller the variability is, the (smaller or greater) the standard deviation is.

Smaller

The median is used instead of the mean when the ________

Distribution is highly skewed

The ______ can be used when the data is ordinal

Median

When the median is reported as the average, it is customary to report the ________ or __________ as a measure of variability

Range or interquartile range

This is the highest score minus the lowest score

Range

This refers to the range between quarters

Interquartile range

Calculate the intequartile range of 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,8,9,10,11,11,12

Divided up into quarters 2.5 6.5 9.5 then take 9.5 – 2.5 = 7
So the IQR is 7 
When the median is reported as the average it is customary to report the range or interquartile range as a measure of variability. The interquartile range is simply the ......

range between the quarters.

How do you find the range?

Highest score minus the lowest score

What is the most widely used coefficient?

Pearson product –moment correlation coefficient

What is the symbol for the Pearson product –moment correlation coefficient?

r (also called the Pearson r)

If the relationship between two variables is perfect, what would the value of Pearsons r be?

1.00

If the relationship between two variables is slightly less than perfect and the value of Pearsons r is .89, although it is not a perfect Pearsons r, it still indicated a ________

Strong direct relationship

So with the Pearson r, if the values are high in one side and low on the other (basically opposite of each other) then the relationship is said to be ________

Inverse relationship (or negative relationship)

With the Pearsons r a value of 0.00 indicates the what

The complete absence of a relationship

Does a Pearsons r of .50 indicate 50% of a characteristic? Why

No, to find a percentage of Pearson r it needs to be converted to another statistic called the coefficient of determination

To represent Pearsons r as a percentage, it must be converted into the coefficient of determination. How do you do this?

It is simply r2 then multiply by 100 to get the percent

A Peasrons r of 1.00 is (perfect/strong/moderate/weak) while a Peasrons r of 1.00 is (perfect/strong/moderate/weak).

Both 1.00 and 1.00 are perfect

What test is often used to test the null hypothesis regarding the observed difference between two means?

t test

The term _________ _______ indicates that the null hypothesis has been rejected

Statistically significant

When the probability the null hypothesis is .01 or .001 what happens to the null hypothesis

It is rejected (the null hypothesis is rejected at anything less than .05)

The size of the difference between means

The amount of variation in the population

What is an alternative test to the t test?

Analysis of variance (aka ANOVA)

What does ANOVA stand for?

Analysis of variance

With the ANOVA (the alternative test to a t test) it yields a ___ instead of a t, as well as degrees of freedom (df) sum of squares, mean square, and a p value.

F

With the ANOVA test (analysis of variance test), what is the only value of interest to the consumer

p

With the ANOVA test (analysis of variance test), what does the p indicate

The probability that the null hypothesis is correct

With the ANOVA test (analysis of variance test), if the p equals .05 or less, this means…..

The null hypothesis is rejected and the results are declared to be statistically significant

When the participants of an ANOVA test have been classified in only one way, it is termed a ……

One way ANOVA (or a single factor ANOVA)

In an ANOVA test, a two way analysis of variance is termed a _______

Main effect

This deals with the question of whether a difference is reliable in the light of random errors.

Statistical significance

Determining the statistical significance of a difference is the first step, determining the _______ is the second step .

Practical significance

Determining the practical significance involves what 5 considerations

Cost benefit analysis
Crucial difference Client acceptability Public and political acceptability Ethical and legal implications 
What is the cost benefit analysis

The cost in relation to the benefit

A crucial difference is one that results in a crucial _______ or ______

Increase or decrease

The most straightforward way to standardize two different tests so they can be comparable is to express both differences in their___________

standard deviation units

how are standard deviation units represented

d

This indicated the direction and strength of a relationship between two variables expressed on a scale that that ranges from 1.00 to 1.00, where 0.00 indicates no relationship

Pearsons r

If a researcher wants to determine which of two groups is superior on average, a comparison of means using ______ is usually the preferred method of analysis. On the other hand if there is one group of participants with two scores per participant and if the goal is to determine the degree of relationship between the two sets of scores, then ________should be used.

d ………. r and r2

This is a set of statistical methods for combining the results of previous studies

Metaanalysis

The main thrust of the conclusions in a metaanalysis is based on the __________ of the statistical results of the previous studies.

mathematical synthesis

With metaanalysis, the mathematical synthesis can be obtained by ……

Averaging the results by summing the mean differences, then dividing the sum by the number of items

What is one of the most popular effect sizes

Cohen’s d

Cohen’s d is expressed on a standardizes scale that typically ranges from ____ to _____

3.00 to 3.00

Calculating d for all studies to be induced in metaanalysis permits the ……….

averaging of the values of d to get a meaningful result

What is a major strength of metaanalysis

it produces results based on large combined samples

What are two major weaknesses of metaanalysis

Diversity and publication bias

Purposive sampling is use by (qualitative or quantitative) researchers

Qualitative

_______ ________is the correct term to use when the researchers seek participants who fit into a broad category such as “Asian Americans with the greatest potential to succeed as psychologists”

Purposive sampling

When there are a number of criteria to be to be applied in the selection of a sample, the sampling technique is more properly called _____ _____ ______

Purposive criterion sampling

(Qualitative or quantitative) researchers usually use fewer participants in their studies

Qualitative

The major reason qualitative researchers use smaller samples than quantitative researchers is because……

Qualitative data collection methods are often more expensive and time consuming

What is the most widely used type of instrument for collecting data for qualitative research

Semistructured interviews

This is a set of written directions for conducting an interview

Interview protocol

This refers to the fact that the interviewer does not need to ask only predetermined questions, it can be reworded by the interviewer

Semistructured

This refers to considering the research problem in relation to the interviewers background and attitudes before conducting the interview

Self disclosure

Examining perceptions is known as _________ approach to acquiring knowledge

Phenomenological

A ______ usually consists of 6 to 12 participants who are gathered to discuss a topic

Focus groups

A focus group is lead by a ______

Facilitator

How long does a typical focus group last

1 hour

In ________ the qualitative researcher observes individuals as an outsider (such as in the back of a classroom)

Nonparticipant observation

In ______ the qualitative researcher becomes (or already is) a part of the group being researched, and thus makes observations as an insider

Participant observation

Using multiple sources for obtaining data on a research topic can be termed_______

Data triangulation

Conducting individual interviews and then having the interviewees provide data via a focus group, would be an example of ______

Methods triangulation

How many types of participants are used in data triangulation. How many are used in methods triangulation

Data triangulation uses two or more types of participants

Forming a research team to ensure the quality of qualitative research can be thought of as_______

Researcher triangulation

Researchers can initially work independently from each other, and then compare their results. To the extent they agree, the results are dependable. This technique examines what is called _______

Interobserver agreement

A peer reviewer who provides a review is called an ______

Auditor

This term is based on the idea that the participants are “members” of a research team

Member checking

The most frequently used approach qualitative researchers use to guiding their data analysis is called____

Grounded theory

This refers to an inductive method of analysis that can lead to theories of behavior

Grounded theory

Quantitative researchers use a (deductive or inductive) method

Deductive

Qualitative researchers use a (deductive or inductive) method

Inductive

(Quantitative or qualitative) researchers deduct theories for what is known and test the theories with research

Quantitative

(Quantitative or qualitative) researchers collect data and analyze it in order to derive theories that explain the patterns noted in the responses of the participants

Qualitative

The grounded theory approach starts with _____

Open coding

In what stage of the grounded theory are the transcripts of the interviews examined for distinct, separate segments which are then coded with individual names

Open coding

The second step in the grounded theory is called the____

Axial coding

At what stage of the grounded theory the transcripts of the interviews and any other data sources reexamined with the purpose of identifying relationships between the categories and themes identified during open coding

Axial coding

The final stages to the grounded theory approach to analysis, qualitative researchers develop a ______

Core category

This step in the grounded theory is the main overarching category under which the other categories and subcategories belong

Core category

A key element throughout the analysis of data using the grounded theory approach is ______

Consistent comparison

Consensual qualitative research is (inductive or deductive)

Inductive

This strives to have a team of researchers arrive at a consensus on the meaning of the data collected

Consensual qualitative research (CQR)

What is the first step in CQR

Code into domains

This refers to segmenting data into groups according to the topics they cover

Code into domains (first step of CQR)

What is the second step in CQR

Develop core ideas within domains

This is done by writing short summaries that reduce the original ideas of participants to fewer words

Develop core ideas within domains (second step of CQR)

What is the third step in CQR

Cross analysis

In this step , the core ideas are grouped into categories based on similarities

Cross analysis (third step of CQR)

This can be done be examining data in addition to the interview transcripts

Stability check

This is examined in CQR by determining the extent to which each a category was general, typical, or variant

Internal stability

Typically, domains that apply to all the participants are called ______; those that apply to half or more of the participants are called ________; and those that apply to less than half but more than two of the participants are called _______.

General / typical / variant

The CQR method required the use of an _____, who is an outside expert

Auditor
