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124 Cards in this Set

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The null hypothesis asserts that
any observed difference was created by random sampling errors. It states that the null hypothesis states that the observed difference is an illusion created by random sampling
The chi square is the usual test of the
null hypothesis for differences between frequencies
df stands for
degrees of freedom
the values of the chi square and degrees of freedom were calculated solely to obtain .....
the probability that the null hypothesis is correct.
Are the chi square and the df descriptive statistics that a consumer should try to interpret?
No
What are the substeps in the mathematical procedure for obtaining the value of p?
Chi square and df
What should you interpret from this equation x2 = 4.00, df =1, p <.05
The probability (p) is less than .05
.
There for the null hypothesis should be thrown out or believed to be untrue
When the probability is less than ______, it should be rejected
.05 or 5 in 100
What should we gather form this equation x2 = 4.00, df =1, p >.05
The probability is greater than 5 in 100 (or .05)
The decision rule states that p must be equal to or less than
.05 for the rejection of the null hypothesis
This is an analysis in which each participant is classified in terms of two variables in order to examine the relationship between them.
Bivariate analysis
This is the act of rejecting a null hypothesis when it is in fact a correct hypothesis
Type I Error
This is the act of failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is in fact an incorrect hypothesis
Type II Error
One way to describe quantative data is to prepare a _____ _____
Frequency distribution
With graphing, when a very large sample is used, the curve becomes (more ridged or more smooth)
More smooth
What is another name for the smooth bell shaped curve?
Normal curve
What is the most frequently used average
Mean
This is the balancing point in a distribution
Mean
How do you determine the mean?
Add up and divide by the number of items
When discussing the mean M represents_________ and m represents ________
M = mean of the population m = mean of the sample
This is the value around which the deviations sum to zero
This is the formal definition of mean
What is the major drawback of using mean?
It is drawn in the direction of extreme scores
What is used to find the average when there are extreme scores?
Median
______ is defined as the middle score
Median
How do you find the median?
Line all numbers up to zero and count to the middle number
This is the most frequently occurring number
Mode
What is the synonym for the term “averages?”
Measures of central tendency
Often a set of scores is described with only two statistics, ______ and ________. ______ is used to describe the average and _______ is used to describe variability
Mean and standard deviation / mean and standard deviation
This refers to the amount by which participants vary or differ from each other
Variability
If a distribution is normal _______ of the participants in the distribution lie within one standard deviation unit of the mean
68%
The smaller the variability is, the (smaller or greater) the standard deviation is.
Smaller
The median is used instead of the mean when the ________
Distribution is highly skewed
The ______ can be used when the data is ordinal
Median
When the median is reported as the average, it is customary to report the ________ or __________ as a measure of variability
Range or interquartile range
This is the highest score minus the lowest score
Range
This refers to the range between quarters
Interquartile range
Calculate the intequartile range of 1,1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,8,9,10,11,11,12
Divided up into quarters 2.5 6.5 9.5 then take 9.5 – 2.5 = 7
So the IQR is 7
When the median is reported as the average it is customary to report the range or interquartile range as a measure of variability. The interquartile range is simply the ......
range between the quarters.
How do you find the range?
Highest score minus the lowest score
What is the most widely used coefficient?
Pearson product –moment correlation coefficient
What is the symbol for the Pearson product –moment correlation coefficient?
r (also called the Pearson r)
If the relationship between two variables is perfect, what would the value of Pearsons r be?
1.00
If the relationship between two variables is slightly less than perfect and the value of Pearsons r is .89, although it is not a perfect Pearsons r, it still indicated a ________
Strong direct relationship
So with the Pearson r, if the values are high in one side and low on the other (basically opposite of each other) then the relationship is said to be ________
Inverse relationship (or negative relationship)
With the Pearsons r a value of 0.00 indicates the what
The complete absence of a relationship
Does a Pearsons r of .50 indicate 50% of a characteristic? Why
No, to find a percentage of Pearson r it needs to be converted to another statistic called the coefficient of determination
To represent Pearsons r as a percentage, it must be converted into the coefficient of determination. How do you do this?
It is simply r2 then multiply by 100 to get the percent
A Peasrons r of 1.00 is (perfect/strong/moderate/weak) while a Peasrons r of -1.00 is (perfect/strong/moderate/weak).
Both 1.00 and -1.00 are perfect
What test is often used to test the null hypothesis regarding the observed difference between two means?
t test
The term _________ _______ indicates that the null hypothesis has been rejected
Statistically significant
When the probability the null hypothesis is .01 or .001 what happens to the null hypothesis
It is rejected (the null hypothesis is rejected at anything less than .05)
The size of the difference between means
The amount of variation in the population
What is an alternative test to the t test?
Analysis of variance (aka ANOVA)
What does ANOVA stand for?
Analysis of variance
With the ANOVA (the alternative test to a t test) it yields a ___ instead of a t, as well as degrees of freedom (df) sum of squares, mean square, and a p value.
F
With the ANOVA test (analysis of variance test), what is the only value of interest to the consumer
p
With the ANOVA test (analysis of variance test), what does the p indicate
The probability that the null hypothesis is correct
With the ANOVA test (analysis of variance test), if the p equals .05 or less, this means…..
The null hypothesis is rejected and the results are declared to be statistically significant
When the participants of an ANOVA test have been classified in only one way, it is termed a ……
One way ANOVA (or a single factor ANOVA)
In an ANOVA test, a two way analysis of variance is termed a _______
Main effect
This deals with the question of whether a difference is reliable in the light of random errors.
Statistical significance
Determining the statistical significance of a difference is the first step, determining the _______ is the second step .
Practical significance
Determining the practical significance involves what 5 considerations
Cost benefit analysis
Crucial difference
Client acceptability
Public and political acceptability
Ethical and legal implications
What is the cost benefit analysis
The cost in relation to the benefit
A crucial difference is one that results in a crucial _______ or ______
Increase or decrease
The most straightforward way to standardize two different tests so they can be comparable is to express both differences in their___________
standard deviation units
how are standard deviation units represented
d
This indicated the direction and strength of a relationship between two variables expressed on a scale that that ranges from -1.00 to 1.00, where 0.00 indicates no relationship
Pearsons r
If a researcher wants to determine which of two groups is superior on average, a comparison of means using ______ is usually the preferred method of analysis. On the other hand if there is one group of participants with two scores per participant and if the goal is to determine the degree of relationship between the two sets of scores, then ________should be used.
d ………. r and r2
This is a set of statistical methods for combining the results of previous studies
Meta-analysis
The main thrust of the conclusions in a meta-analysis is based on the __________ of the statistical results of the previous studies.
mathematical synthesis
With meta-analysis, the mathematical synthesis can be obtained by ……
Averaging the results by summing the mean differences, then dividing the sum by the number of items
What is one of the most popular effect sizes
Cohen’s d
Cohen’s d is expressed on a standardizes scale that typically ranges from ____ to _____
-3.00 to 3.00
Calculating d for all studies to be induced in meta-analysis permits the ……….
averaging of the values of d to get a meaningful result
What is a major strength of meta-analysis
it produces results based on large combined samples
What are two major weaknesses of meta-analysis
Diversity and publication bias
Purposive sampling is use by (qualitative or quantitative) researchers
Qualitative
_______ ________is the correct term to use when the researchers seek participants who fit into a broad category such as “Asian Americans with the greatest potential to succeed as psychologists”
Purposive sampling
When there are a number of criteria to be to be applied in the selection of a sample, the sampling technique is more properly called _____ _____ ______
Purposive criterion sampling
(Qualitative or quantitative) researchers usually use fewer participants in their studies
Qualitative
The major reason qualitative researchers use smaller samples than quantitative researchers is because……
Qualitative data collection methods are often more expensive and time consuming
What is the most widely used type of instrument for collecting data for qualitative research
Semistructured interviews
This is a set of written directions for conducting an interview
Interview protocol
This refers to the fact that the interviewer does not need to ask only predetermined questions, it can be reworded by the interviewer
Semistructured
This refers to considering the research problem in relation to the interviewers background and attitudes before conducting the interview
Self disclosure
Examining perceptions is known as _________ approach to acquiring knowledge
Phenomenological
A ______ usually consists of 6 to 12 participants who are gathered to discuss a topic
Focus groups
A focus group is lead by a ______
Facilitator
How long does a typical focus group last
1 hour
In ________ the qualitative researcher observes individuals as an outsider (such as in the back of a classroom)
Non-participant observation
In ______ the qualitative researcher becomes (or already is) a part of the group being researched, and thus makes observations as an insider
Participant observation
Using multiple sources for obtaining data on a research topic can be termed_______
Data triangulation
Conducting individual interviews and then having the interviewees provide data via a focus group, would be an example of ______
Methods triangulation
How many types of participants are used in data triangulation. How many are used in methods triangulation
Data triangulation uses two or more types of participants
Forming a research team to ensure the quality of qualitative research can be thought of as_______
Researcher triangulation
Researchers can initially work independently from each other, and then compare their results. To the extent they agree, the results are dependable. This technique examines what is called _______
Interobserver agreement
A peer reviewer who provides a review is called an ______
Auditor
This term is based on the idea that the participants are “members” of a research team
Member checking
The most frequently used approach qualitative researchers use to guiding their data analysis is called____
Grounded theory
This refers to an inductive method of analysis that can lead to theories of behavior
Grounded theory
Quantitative researchers use a (deductive or inductive) method
Deductive
Qualitative researchers use a (deductive or inductive) method
Inductive
(Quantitative or qualitative) researchers deduct theories for what is known and test the theories with research
Quantitative
(Quantitative or qualitative) researchers collect data and analyze it in order to derive theories that explain the patterns noted in the responses of the participants
Qualitative
The grounded theory approach starts with _____
Open coding
In what stage of the grounded theory are the transcripts of the interviews examined for distinct, separate segments which are then coded with individual names
Open coding
The second step in the grounded theory is called the____
Axial coding
At what stage of the grounded theory the transcripts of the interviews and any other data sources reexamined with the purpose of identifying relationships between the categories and themes identified during open coding
Axial coding
The final stages to the grounded theory approach to analysis, qualitative researchers develop a ______
Core category
This step in the grounded theory is the main overarching category under which the other categories and subcategories belong
Core category
A key element throughout the analysis of data using the grounded theory approach is ______
Consistent comparison
Consensual qualitative research is (inductive or deductive)
Inductive
This strives to have a team of researchers arrive at a consensus on the meaning of the data collected
Consensual qualitative research (CQR)
What is the first step in CQR
Code into domains
This refers to segmenting data into groups according to the topics they cover
Code into domains (first step of CQR)
What is the second step in CQR
Develop core ideas within domains
This is done by writing short summaries that reduce the original ideas of participants to fewer words
Develop core ideas within domains (second step of CQR)
What is the third step in CQR
Cross analysis
In this step , the core ideas are grouped into categories based on similarities
Cross analysis (third step of CQR)
This can be done be examining data in addition to the interview transcripts
Stability check
This is examined in CQR by determining the extent to which each a category was general, typical, or variant
Internal stability
Typically, domains that apply to all the participants are called ______; those that apply to half or more of the participants are called ________; and those that apply to less than half but more than two of the participants are called _______.
General / typical / variant
The CQR method required the use of an _____, who is an outside expert
Auditor