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161 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How has the use of adhesive dentistry affect the concepts of cavity preparations
it has allowed for removal of less tooth and more conservative preps
What is meant by bond strength
measure of the load bearing capacity of the adhesive
What is the diff between cohesive and adhesive bond types
Cohesive- failure in one of the substrates and not the interface

Adhesive - failure at the interface between the two substrates
How does surface free energy affect our ability to bond dentin and enamel
surface TENSION of adhesive must be less than surface ENERGY of adherens
What is the primary mechanism that allows resin bonding agent to bond to tooth
micromechanical interlocking with the surface of etched substrate
What changes in dentin structure can affect bonding ability
sclerosis, insult of caries can give reparative dentin. hypermineralization - obstruction of tubules by Whitlockite crystalline deposits
what is the smear layer
cutting debris hat is calcified by rotary instrument on dentin, enamel and cementum
how does smear layer affect dentinal permeability
smear layer occludes the tubules and deminishes permeability
How does smear layer and removal of smear layer affect bonding process to dentin
smear layer is detrimental to bonding because you get cohesive failure of smear layer. THUS REMOVING SMEAR LAYER INCREASES BOND STRENGTH
How does polym contraction stress affect the bond between tooth and resin
may pull composite away from walls of cavity preparation
Whats the diff between external and internal dentinal wetness
Internal - fluids from the pulp that flow thru dentinal tubules

External - ambient moisture or humidity
Why does saliva decrease bonding effectiveness
Saliva proteins block porosities and impede contact between adhesive and bonding substrate
When etching both enamel and dentin why is it important to not etch more than 15 seconds
dont want to deep an etch
What does wet bonding mean
keep dentin wet and rely on water chasing effect of acetone based primer
How does excessive moisture on the dentin surface prior to applying primer effect the resin-dentin bond
dilutes the primer and renders it less effective

Causes phase separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers
Why must we leave primers on for 15 seconds
allow monomers to interdiffuse to the entire depth of surface
What is the effect of over thinning the thickness of the adhesive resin layer
decreases elastic buffer
What is the advant of having small filler particles in the adhesive resin
alleviates stress,
less contraction
superior physical properties
increased compressive strength
Why should a light cured adhesive bonding agent be light cured prior to application of the resin composite restorative material
stability of the resin to tooth bond

so that the resin adhesive is not displaced by the resin composite
describe the causes of the degeneration of the bond between resin and tooth structure
mechanical forces
thermal expansion
chemical - water difussion
human and bacterial enzymes
What factors affect the effectiveness of a curing light
intensity of light source
light exposure time
resistance from tip(dirty etc..)
shade of resin composite(Darker shades require more time)
What are the two classifications systems for resin dentin bonding agents
Chronological - non scientific just by the order they came onto the market

Scientific classification based on system type - Etch and Rinse, Self-Etch and Glass Ionomers
What is the difference between a 2 step and 3 step "etch and rinse" adhesive
2 step - acid and primer/resin
3 step - acid, primer, resin
What is the most critical step in the "etch and rinse" approach
application of the primer
What is the effect of acid etching on the enamelsurface
enlarged surface area for bonding, transforms surface to rougher surface with 2X the surface energy(microporosities are created)
What parameters can affect the effectiveness of acid etching on enamel
type of acid, concentration of acid, time its on there, form of acid, rinse time and enamel composition
how does acid conditioning of dentin affect its surface free energy
it decreases the surface free energy(this is opposite of enamel so thats why we use primer on dentin)
why are low viscosity resins such as HEMA essential to promote adhesion to conditioned dentin
HEMA has excellent wetting capabilities
What is the major role of the adhesive bnding resin
stabilize the hybrid layer and form resin extensions into dentinal tubules
what is the implication of the oxygen inhibited layer on the surface of the adhesive resin
the layer offers sufficient MMA double bonds for copolymerization of the adhesive resin with the restorative resin
What does the term hybridization refer to in regards to adhesive bonding
the process of resin interlocking in the demineralized dentin surface

Which is more critical to sucess of dentin bonding process (presence of inter tubular dentin or development of resin tags)
Intertubular dentin
What are the adv and disadv of self-etch adhesive resins
look at pages in books the tables are too long
What is the major difference bewteen the bonding systems of the first 2 generations and those that followed
dentin etching
What is the major diff between IV gen and V gen bonding systems
V combines primer and adhesive
What has the sucess of VI and VII bonding agents
lower bond strength but the technique for installing is much more simplified
Is a coallesced or non coallesced pit and fissure more likely to get caries
non coallesced more likely to get caries(the enamel hasnt completely merged so bacteria is easily trapped)
What is a reliable method for detecting pit and fissure carries
Visual observation with magnification and clean dry tooth
Does the author of the text recommend placing sealants over known carious dentin
why is important to dry off tooth when detecting caries
removes saliva that can cover up areas
makes white spots more easily noticed
How does the presence of a cavitation on the tooth surface generally relate to the depth fo the caries in relation to dentin
A white spot lesion that is visible w/o drying is probably over 1/2 way thru enamel and may be in dentin

If you need to dry to see it its probably not 1/2 way thru enamel
How are BWX used to support the visual inspection of teeth for pit and fissure caries
its an safety net
Are you supposed to use a sharp explorer to detect P&F caries
no its inaccurate and can damage the tooth
Number 8 Section 6
Look it up
Number 9 SEction 6
look it up
what are the preventive measures suggested for use in preventing caries
Oral hygiene with Fl containing toothpaste, flouride application and use of sealants
How does the fact that a caries lesion has become cavitated effect the possibility of the healing the lesion with remineralization techniques
hard to heal the lesion cause you cant brush and floss
name the 3 problems assoc with use of resin composites to be able to serve acceptably in posterior restorations
occlusional post-op sensitivity
less than ideal wear resistance
What are the 2 factors that are prereqs for resin composites to be able to work acceptably as a restoration
appropriate case selection
appropriate clinical technique
what are the advantages of resin composites as a posterior restorative material
Conservative tooth prep
adhesion to tooth structure instead of using undercuts
low thermal conductivity
elminate chance of galvanic current(metal on metal shock)
what are the disadvantages of resin composites as a posterior restorative material
Polym shrinkage
secondary caries risk
post op sensitivity
decreased wear rate
In authors opinion what is the best means to isolate an area for resin composite placements
damn rubber dams
what is the key to sealant success
total sealant and retention
List the factors that can affect the rentention and effectiveness of a sealant
mand show higher retention than max
PM show higher retention than molars
annual recall of pts and repair of partially or totally lost sealants improves effectiveness
use of bonding agents prior to sealant placement helps to wet fissures which improves penetration into fissures thus increasing bond strength
slight mechanical preparation of fissures with very small burs or air abrasion to provide sound enamel to etch and ehances sealant pentration and bond strength
clinical studies of RMGI sealants show good caries prevention but poor mechanical retention compared to resin sealants
flowable resin composite materials have been shown to perform well as fissure sealants
the use of sealants should be based on pts future risk for caries and not just placed universally
Special Note ----- The sensitivity experienced post op because of polym shrinkage is due to what
bacteria allowed in or fluid flow between dentinal tubules can cause pain as well
Name the advantages of using a preventive resin restoration(PRR) to restore P&F caries
limited preparation
conservative approach
minimal wear areas
no progression of sealed caries
good longevity
tell when a PRR is indicated
when some areas of the fissure system are associated with a carious dentin and others are not
how dose the width and depth of the prepartion affect the selection of the type of resin material to be used
deeper wider preps should have highly filled resin put in

shallow narrow preps need a more flowable resin installed
What are the 4 structural components of a resin composite
polymer matrix, filler particles, coupling initiator and initiator
what benefits do the filler particles give to the resin composite
improved translucency
reduce coefficient of thermal expansion
reduce polym shrinkage
what is the coupling agent used to bind the filler particles to the matrix
silane - it promotes adhesion of filler to matrix to improve cohesive strength which prevents filler particles from being "plucked" from the surface due to wear.
what is the most common photoinitiator
what are some of the undesirable characteristics of resin composites
polym shrinkage, high CTE
what are some things that are recommended to offset the effects of poly shrinkage
increment curing
enamel beveling
slow setting
resin liners
how does the viscosity of resin composites affect its handling characteristics
it influences the adapatation of the resin to the cavity prep walls to reduce porsoities and voids
differentiate betweeen enamel, dentin and incisal shades of resins
dentin - most opaque
enamel- body shades
incisal - the most translucent
what are the two major types of resin composites described
microfilled and hybrid
explain the differences in strength and polishability between a hybrid and a microfilled resin
microfilled - most highly polishable but not as strong

hybride- stronger and still pretty good polishability
Describe the ideal circumstances for using a resin composite in a posterior restoration
Patient not allergic to resin material
Patient exhibits ability to perform good oral hygiene
centric occlusal stops
patient with no excessive wear from clenching or grinding
rubber dam isolation is possible
estethics is a prime concern for patient
facial lingual width is no more than 1/3 of intercuspal distance to reduce occlusal forces
all cavosurface margins should be in enamel
explain what informed consent is and how it relates to tx planning for a posterior resin restoration
Explain the procedure and the possible risks and rewards of this procedure as well as other options for different procedures
Is the routine use of a test for the salivary count for mutans streptococcus recommended
what is the relationship between a high salivary count for S. mutans and dental caries
usually high counts of S. mutans means high caries rate but not always
according to the books author what is the most important factor that can be identified in a patients medical records
dry mouth
t or f. Any cavitation on the surface of the tooth corresponds to progression of the lesion into the dentin
T (most studies show this is true according to the text)
what defines an a high copper alloy
12-30% wt of copper and at least 40% silver
what is the main advantage of high copper alloys
the elimination of the highly corrodible and weak gamma 2(tin-mercury) phase that existed in low copper dental amalgams
what does current research reveal concerning the saftey of amalgam and the mercury in them
No toxic effects are noted
what is the difference between lathe cut, spherical and admixed amalgam
lathecut - milled filings, more conventional
admixed - mixture of lathecut and spherical
spherical - duh!!!
is an allergic response to amalgam common
no extremely rare (<1% occurence)
what ar the advantages and disadvantages of using amalgam
Advantages - strenght, durable wear, easy to use, reduced microleakage and its cheaper

disadvantages - not tooth colored, doesnt bond to teeth
what are the different handling properties of spherical amalgam compared to lathecut or admixed
spherical has lower mercury ratio, less condensation force needed, doesnt adapt to cavity walls as well as lathe cut
spherical is harder to condense and thus harder to obtain a good interproximal contact on a Class II filling
Sphericals set faster and give less working time
T or F the smaller the nib the more force is needed to condense the amalgam
F a small nib needs less force to condense
what techniques acn be used to assure proper lateral condensation of the amalgam against the walls of the prep
move condensor laterally and use the side of it or tilt condenser and alter direction of force
how does residual mercury in amalgam restorations affect is properties
the less residual mercury present means the stronger and longer lasting it will be
when should the "pre carve" burnish take place
immediately after condensing
why does the text recommend a sterilized sharpening stone be available during the carving procedure
cause amalgam rapidly dulls blades and a sharp blade is important
what methods can be used to aid in avoiding and identifying "flash" wen placing an amalgam
have enamel margins that are smooth and not rough when an explorer is passed over them
While carving make sure that blade is half on tooth and half in the amalgam.
Only carve parallel to cavosurface margin
what two techniques are discussed to aid in the adjustment of the occlusal contacts on an amalgam restoration
articulating paper or shim stock
What are the advantages of utilizing a rubber dam
Most complete method of obtaining field isolation is the rubber dam. Use of the rubber dam not only boosts the quality of restorations but also increases quantity of restorative services because patients are unable to talk or expectorate when the dam is in place. The operating field can only be maintained free of saliva and other contaminats with the rubber dam in place, and the field is more accessible, airborne debris is reduced, and the patient feels more comfortable. In addition, it reduces michroleakage on resin composites.
What type of rubber dam is recommended for operative dentistry procedures
Rubber dam material is abailable in several thicknesses or gauges. The heavy and extra heavy gauges are recommended for isolation in opertive dentistry. Heavy dams are no more difficult to apply than thinner materials, and heavier dams are less likely to tear. The heavier materials provide a better seal to teeth and retract tissues more effectively than the thinner materials.
What commonly can cause a rubber dam punch to be damaged so that it will no longer cut a clean hole? (What complications can occur from utilizing a damaged punch)
Occasionally, the rim of a hole may be damaged because the rotating cutting table was not snapped completely inot position before an attempt was made to punch a dam. Holes must be cleanly cut. A damaged hole rim in the cutting talble will cause incomplete cutting.
What techniques are available to aid in locating where the holes should be punched in the rubber dam prior to application
Templates, Stamps, and patients cast.
What are the three basic types of rubber dam clamps mentioned
Winged – No W indicates THERE IS WINGS
Wingless – W indicates wingless
What special purpose does the No. 212SA clamp serve
This is the butterfly clamp. It is designed to serve as a retractor only. This clamp must be stabilized on the tooth or it may rock mesiodistally during the procedure and damage the root. The double bow fo the No 212SA clamp precludes placement of two clamps on adjacent teeth.
Why is it important to establish “fourpoint: contact between the clamp and the tooth
Four-point contact is desirable because of the stability it provides on the tooth surface and resistance to rotation or dislodgment
How does the author’s philosophy toward the ligation of a rubber dam clamp during an operative procedure differ from that followed in our clinics
The school says that ligation should be used always, placed on the clamp before inserting the clamp into the mouth, and not taken off the ligation until the clamp has been removed from the mouth. The author believes that ligation is only needed during placement of the clamp and should then be removed.
What alternative techniques are described for rubber dam retention? P165 (These alternative techniques would mainly be used in our clinic only for the anchorage of an anterior segment of a rubber dam)
Dental floss or tape is placed doubly through a contact and then cut to a short length so that it does not impede access
A short strip of rubber dam material is cut from the edge of the rubber dam, stretched and carried through the contact, and then allowed to relax to retain the dam
Floss is tied to a sterilized rubber plunger from an anesthetic cartridge or similar item and then tied around the most distal isolated tooth
Elastic cord is placed interproximally to retain the dam.
What is the advantage of using waxed dental floss to help pass the rubber dam through the proximal contact area
Waxed tape or ribbon floss will carry more of a septum through a contact in a single pass than will the narrower floss.
Can a rubber dam be placed without the administration of dental anesthesia in the area
Anesthesia is generally not required. The clamp should be resting on the tooth and not penetrating into the gingiva.
How should the stability of a rubber dam clamp be checked
The stability is checked by engaging the bow if the clamp with an instrument and firmly attempting to pull it occlusally. If the clamp rotates on the tooth, it is not stable and should be repositioned or replaced
What are the four different approaches to dental dam application discussed
a. Dam over clamp – wingless clamp placed on tooth and damp positioned over the clamp
b. Winged clamp in dam – prior to lubrication of the dam, the clamp is placed into the distal hole so that the hole is stretched over the wings of the clamp from its tissue side
c. Wingless clamp in dam – The distal hole of the lubricated dam is passed over the bow of a wingless clamp, so that the hole comes to rest at the junction of the bow and the jaw arms. The clamp pliers are used from underneath.
d. Clamp after dam – the dam is applied to the teeth and then the clamp is placed.
How does inversion of the dam around the tooth improve the isolation of the operating field?
When the am is inverted, a positive pressure under the dam simply seves to push the valve more tightly against the tooth so that no flooding fo the field occurs.
17. What percentage of patients is estimated to be allergic to latex? (What options are available to latex?
3.7% are reported to have a latex alergy
use nitrile gloves and dams
be a soldier and bareback it(not recommended at all)
What are three other methods of isolation (mentioned in the text) that can be used if rubber dam isolation is not feasible?
Svedopter – tongue retraction device
Hygoformic Saliva Ejector
Vac-Ejector – bite block, tongue retractor for mandibular areas, and high-speed suction attachment.
What is the difference between the universal and Federation Dentaire Internationale systems for numbering teeth
The universal we all know and love - 1-32

the FDI uses 1-1, 1-2 etc.. the first number is 1 max right, 2 max left, 3 mand left and 4 mand right.

the second number is the tooth 1 being a CI, 2 a LI 3 a Canine and so on
list the six cavity classifcations
I - pits and fissures on facial, lingual and occlusal surfaces

II - lesions on interproximal surfaces of posterior teeth

III - lesions on proximals of anterior teeth

IV - lesions on proximal surface and incisal surface of anteriors

V - lesions on smooth surfaces of facial and lingual sides in gingival 1/3 of tooth

VI - lesions are in pit or wear defects on incials edges of anterior teeth or cusp tips of posteriors
Why are stainless steel instruments better than carbon steel ones
because all instruments must be sterilized with steam and dry heat.

What is meant when a hand instrument is balanced
the working end of the blade is within 2-3 mm of the axis of the handle

this helps keep the instrument from rotating when force is applied to it
know your instruments and the differences between them
know it
what are the two strokes used with hand instruments
horizontal strokes - long axis of blade is directed between 45 and 90 degrees to the surface being planed

vertical or "chopping" strokes- blade is nearly parallel with the wall or margin being trimmed
give the meaning of the 3 digit numbering system
the 3 digit system is used for instruments whose primary cutting edge is at a right angle to the long axis of the blade

first number is width of blade in tenths of mm
second number is length of blade in mm
third number is angle in centigrade made by the long axis of the blade and the long axis of the handle
give the meaning of the 4 digits numbering system
the 4 digit system is used for instruments whose primary cutting edge is NOT at a right angle to the long axis of the blade(gingival margin trimmers for example)

first number is width of blade in tenths of mm
second number is the angle in centigrade that the primary cutting edge makes with the axis of the handle
third number is length of the blade in mm
fourth number is angle in centigrade that the long axis of the blade makes with the handle
what does contra angle mean
the head of the handpiece is first angled away from and then back toward the long axis of the instrument
what are the highspeed and lowspeed handpieces used for
highspeed - cutting enamel and dentin, preparing outline

slowspeed - removal of carious dentin, finishing and polishing
What is the difference between the US and ISO for bur numbering
The ISO system uses the diameter to calculate bur size
what shape are the burs numbered 1/16 thru 11
round burs
what are the burs numbered 33 1/2 to 40
inverted cones
what are the burs numbered 55 1/2 to 60
straight fissure
what are the burs numbered 556 to 560
straight fissure, crosscut
what are the burs numbered 1156 to 1158
strait fissure, rounded end
what are the burs numbered 168 to 171
tapered fissure
what are the burs numbered 1169 to 1171
tapered fissure, round ended
what are the burs numbered 699 to 703
tapered fissure, crosscut
what are the burs numbered 329 to 332
what are the burs numbered 245 and 246
long inverted cone, rounded corners

what are the burs numbered 956 and 957
end cutting
what is the difference between a trimming/finishing bur and a cutting bur
the trimming/finishing burs have more blades thus allowing a finer cut
how can the use of magnification affect the outcome of a restoratvie procedure
duh they made us buy loupes
what methods can be used to make sure a hand instrument is sharp
run it across a highspeed ejector(or other hard plastic) straw and see if it peels up shavings
what special technique must be used to sharpen a round bladed cuting instrument such as the cleoid-discoid carver
the handle cannot be simply twirled but must be moved in an arc to keep the cutting edge of the blade perpendicular to the direction of the stroke
what is the correct angle of the bevel on a hand cutting instrument
45 degrees with the face of the blade
what are the mains uses of the mouth mirror during dental tx
indirect vision
indirect lighting
how does the correct grasp described in the section for dental instrumentation differ from that used to hold a pencil
handle of instrument is engaged by the end NOT the side of the middle finger
Discuss the guidelines presented for the Class I cavity distolingual groove preparation on the typodont tooth.
a. Enter the distal pit and carry pulpal depth to 1.5 mm
i. Make sure the pulpal wall follows the slope of the DEJ
1. Higher at the lingual than in the distal pit area
b. Extend the cavity preparation along the lingual groove and onto the lingual surface to 1.0 mm
c. Place the fissure bur (55) on the external lingual surface along the lingual groove and cut axially to the correct depth of 1.0 mm
i. The bur should lean slightly buccally while preparing this lingual portion
1. Allow the axial wall to follow the correct DEJ slope
d. Flatten and smooth the gingival wall of the lingual box with inverted cone
e. Place retentive grooves along the mesioaxial and distoaxial line angles
f. Slightly round the axiopulpal line angle
i. Reduces the distinct line of stress of a sharp line angle and will aid in avoiding subsequent fracture of the restoration
g. Plane all internal walls and cavosurface angles of the cavity prep
2. Differentiate between the guidelines presented for the Class I distolingual cavity preparation on a typodont with those on a natural tooth
On a natural tooth the axial wall is placed 0.5 mm inside the DEJ
On a typodont the axial wall is 1.0 mm inside the DEJ
the pulpal wall slants toward the lingual in the DLG instead of being perpendicular with the long axis of the tooth. spare the spare distolingual cusp at all costs. Axial wall should lean slightly towards buccal. round of the axiopulpal line angle. place retentive grooves in the axiomesial and axiodistal line angles.
3. Explain the general considerations of ideal Class I distolingual cavity preparation design as they relate to the seven steps of cavity preparation
Seven steps:
1.Outline form
-You don’t want your outline form to be any wider than the 330 burs or any deeper (1.5 mm)
-On the lingual extension, the outline form again should not be any wider than the 55 bur and no deeper than 1.0 mm
2. Resistance form
-Flat horizontal walls, pulpal wall smooth with slight angulation from distal to lingual (lingual being slightly higher)
-Walls at right angles
3. Retention form
- Add a dovetail in the distal pit
- Add retention grooves in the mesioaxial and distoaxial line angles
4. Convenience form
- The head of the smallest condenser must be able to fit in all the cavity preps
5. Remove all remaining caries
-Make sure after that all the caries are out of the DLG and that you don’t need to make a small prep in the mesial pit
6. Finish enamel walls and margins
-All cavosurface margins on relatively smooth surfaces
- Marginal ridges protected
- Oblique ridge not undermined
-Distolingual cusp protected
- Pulpal wall sloped slightly “higher” toward the lingual
-Axial wall tilted slightly buccally
-Axiopulpal line angle slightly rounded
-Gingival wall perpendicular to long axis of tooth
7. Cleanse and debridement
-Basically make sure it is clean and dry
5. List three advantages of using the dental mirror for indirect vision during operative procedures
1. Basic comfort of the operator
2. Many areas of the mouth will present problems of inadequate vision, especially the maxillary arch
3. Patient comfort
what is a retentive groove
an extension into the prep that is placed in order to give an increased depth to help keep the amalgam alloy in place in the prep
How are proximal caries usually initially diagnosed
Can sometimes be detected visually during a clinical exam, but they are usually detected with BWX
According to the authors, when should restorative procedures be initiated to treat a proximal carious lesion
When the carious lesion is more than 2/3 through the proximal enamel and penetrated the DEJ
3. How does the author’s philosophy concerning the Class II amalgam prep differ form the traditional G.V. Black prep philosophy that is presented in Session 14 of your course manual where all pits and fissures are included in the outline form
The author states that if there is an occlusal caries lesion present, it should be treates with a separate occlusal restoration. If the prep necessitated by the occlusal caries lesion is in close proximity to the occlusal outline of the proximal prep, and there is minimal or no sound tooth strtucture separating the tow preps, they shold be joined.
- He does not like the “extension for prevention”. The author states that fissures that come into contact of the outline forms should be sealed, not extended further.
What is the most commonly used matrix system utilized
Tofflemire matrix system
What are the main purposes of a matrix
4 Confine amalgam so adequate condensation forces can be applied
Allow re-establishment of contact w/ adjacent tooth
Restrict extrusion of amalgam and formation of overhang at a hidden margin i.e. gingival margin
Provide for adequate physiologic contour for proximal surface of restoration
Give a good surface texture to proximal surface, especially since contact area cannot be carved
What are the different types of bands available for use with the Tofflemire matrix system
Flat, pre-contoured, bands with and without memory (dead-soft materials)
From which side of the tooth should the wooden wedge be placed when using a Tollflemire matrix system
Can be applied from facial or lingual aspect. It should be inserted from the side with the widest embrasure
what are the tricks for removing a Tofflemire Matrix
As the matrix edge comes out of the contact, tip the matrix so the edge will not “flip” the newly carved marginal ridge and break it
Hold a condenser against marginal ridge to support it and prevent it from breaking as matrix is removed
Movement of band should be primarily to facial or lingual aspect as band slips occlusally out of contact
Band may be cut close to teeth on lingual aspect then pulled facially from contact
What is the purpose of GV Blacks 7 steps of cavity prep
a systematic and scientific approach for efficiently preparing cavity preps
What is the indication for a class I amalgam restoration
carious tooth structure in the occlusal fisures(or in facial or lingual pits on posterior teeth) that is detected either clinically or with BWX
What are the objectives of treatment for a class I amalgam restoration
eliminate carious lesions, remove any enamel that has been undermined by caries process, to preserve as much sound tooth as possible and create a strong restoration that mimics the original structure and allows little or no marginal leakage
what is a linear channel on the surface of a tooth that is usually at the junction of dental lobes(cusps or ridges) called
groove or Developmental groove
what is a developmental linear cleft that is a result of the incomplete fusion of the enamel of adjoining dental lobes
what is a pinpoint fissure or the junction of several fissures called
Does the presence of a deep or stained fissure alone justify putting an amalgam in
Should grooves that have no fissures or caries be routinely included in the occlusal outline form of a class I prep for amalgam
well the book gives a look at how back in the day they did extend to prevent but then in the last sentence says that "extension of cavity preparations through grooves in which there is no fissures is contraindicated"

How does the philosophy of the text toward the treatment of a class I cavity differ from GV Blacks extension for prevention throwdown
the book says that the extension of cavity preps thru fissures not known to be carious cannot be justified

Are the majority of restorations completely protected from leakage between the tooth and the restoration material
book says "most restorations exhibit some leakage at their margins, although it is minimal in most cases"
What is the purpose of establishing smooth curves in the cavity outline
to allow uncovering of the marigins during carving the amalgam
Why is it important to prepare the enamel margins at an angle of 90 degrees or more
very acute amalgam margin angles are much more subject to fx. these fxs can lead to marginal gaps or ditches
What is the danger for a cusp that is reduced by more than 1/3 of the intercuspal distance during cutting a prep
it can be too weak to support occlusal forces. It will have to be reduced for coverage with amalgam(complex amalgam restoration- imagine this is post and core which we will cover later on)
what should be done if an occlusal carious lesion is so extensive that it encroaches the proximal surface or the marginal ridge of a tooth
consideration should be given to whether or not occlusal forces will contact the area. if so a class II prep should be done