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15 Cards in this Set

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He was the prince of Moldavia from 1457 and 1504. When the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II launched an attack on Moldavia, he defeated the invaders at the Battle of Vaslui in 1475, a victory which temporarily halted the Turkish advance into the Balkans.

He was defeated at Războieni (Battle of Valea Albă) the next year, but the Ottoman Turks had to retreat after they failed to take any significant castle (see siege of Cetatea Neamţului) and after a plague started to spread in the Ottoman army. His search for European assistance against the Turks had little success, but his determination "to cut off the pagan's right hand" won him the acclaim of Pope Sixtus IV as "Christ's Champion".

After 1484 he had to contend not only with new Turkish onslaughts but also with Polish and Hungarian designs on Moldavian independence. Finally in 1489 he concluded a treaty with Sultan Bayezit II that preserved Moldavia's self rule, at the cost of an annual tribute to the Turks. Later, from the 16th century, the Principality of Moldavia would spend three hundred years under Ottoman suzerainty.

Who was this prince
Stefan the Great
He was a statesman and soldier of the Hugarian kingdom. He lost the two-day Second Battle of Kosovo after forming an alliance with the Serbs in 1442. He was probably Transylvanian by birth. While still a youth, the younger John Hunyadi entered the service of Sigismund, who appreciated his qualities and borrowed money from him.
In 1441 he delivered Serbia by the victory of Semendria. In 1442, not far from Hermannstadt (Sibiu), on which he had been forced to retire, he annihilated an immense Turkish host, and recovered for Hungary the suzerainty of Wallachia and Moldavia; and in July he vanquished a third Turkish army near the Iron Gates. These victories made Hunyadi's name terrible to the Turks and renowned throughout Christendom, and stimulated him in 1443 to undertake, along with King Władysław, the famous expedition known as the "long campaign". Hunyadi, at the head of the vanguard, crossed the Balkans through the Gate of Trajan, captured Niš, defeated three Turkish pashas, and, after taking Sofia, united with the royal army and defeated Sultan Murat II at Snaim. The impatience of the king and the severity of the winter then compelled him (February 1444) to return home, but not before he had utterly broken the sultan's power in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Albania.
After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, that Mehmet II was rallying his resources in order to subjugate Hungary. His immediate objective was Belgrade. This Hungarian warrior/statesman arrived at the siege of Belgrade at the end of 1455, after settling differences with his domestic enemies. At his own expense he restocked the supplies and arms of the fortress, leaving in it a strong garrison under the command of his brother-in-law Mihály Szilágyi and his own eldest son László. He proceeded to form a relief army and assembled a fleet of two hundred corvettes. His main ally was the Franciscan friar, Giovanni da Capistrano, whose fiery oratory drew a large crusade made up mostly of peasants. Though relatively ill-armed (most were armed with farm equipment- scythes, pitchforks, and the like) they flocked to Hunyadi and his small corps of seasoned mercenaries and mounted knights.
On July 14, 1456 the flotilla of corvettes assembled by this Hungarian warrior statesman destroyed the Ottoman fleet. On July 21 Szilágyi's forces in the fortress repulsed a fierce assault by the Rumelian army, and he pursued the retreating forces into their camp, taking advantage of the Turkish army's confused flight from the city. After fierce but brief fighting, the camp was captured, and Mehmet raised the siege and returned to Istanbul. With his flight began a 70 year period of relative peace on Hungary's southeastern border. Unfortunately, plague broke out in this Hungarian warrior statesman’s camp three weeks after the lifting of the siege, and he died August 11.
Who was he?
John (Janos) Hunyadi
He was Holy Roman Emperor from 1410 to 1437.
The third and last German Emperor and fourth Bohemian king of the Luxembourg dynasty, He was the second son of the Emperor Charles IV, and was born in Nuremberg.
Through his marriage to Mary, queen (1382-1385 and 1386-1395) of Hungary, Sigismund became the country's king in 1386 despite opposition among the nobility.
In 1396 he organised a crusade to repel the Ottoman Turks, who were threatening Hungary from the south, but the Christian forces were routed at the Battle of Nicopolis (now Nikopol, Bulgaria).
In about 1406 he remarried with a Slovenian noblewoman Barbara Celjska (Barbara of Celje), daughter of Hermann II, Count of Celje (Cilli).
Who was he?
Sigismund
He was king of Hungary and later Poland from 1342 to 1382. Two successful wars (1357–58, 1378–81) against Venice, however, gained him Dalmatia and Ragusa. The rulers of Serbia, Walachia, Moldavia, and Bulgaria became his vassals. In Poland, where his campaign (1354) against the Tatars and the Lithuanians had made him popular, he was unable to prevent revolts after his accession. In 1377, he campaigned successfully against the Ottomans. He brought Hungarian power to its peak and also fostered art and learning, which were influenced both by his French background and by his campaigns that brought Hungarians in contact with the Italian Renaissance. he had no male heir but provided for his succession by marrying his eldest daughter, Mary, to Sigismund (later Holy Roman emperor). After a period of turmoil following his death, Mary and Sigismund ruled Hungary jointly. Poland refused to continue the union of the crowns, so his younger daughter, Jadwiga, succeeded him as ruler of Poland. Who was he?
Louis I the Great of Hungary
He was born in Transoxania, near Kesh, in an area now better known as Shahr-e Sabz, 'the green city,' situated some 50 miles south of Samarkand in modern Uzbekistan.

In 1402, he invaded Anatolia and defeated Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I in the Battle of Ankara; Bayezit I was captured and subsequently committed suicide in captivity. He gave back beyliks to the nobility that the Osmans took them from but left the Osman house intact. The interegnum followed this event. Who was he?
Timur, a.k.a. Tamburlaine
He was prince of the Ak Koyunlu dynasty (1423 - January 6, 1478), or White Sheep Turkmen, he ruled in parts of western Persia, Iraq and Turkey between 1453 and 1478. He attacked the Ottomans after forming an alliane with the Venetians. He was defeated by Mehmet II in 1473.

Who was he?
Uzun-Hassan
He was the first Ottoman sultan who ruled from 1281 to 1324. He was born in Sogut. Who was he?
Osman I
He reigned from 1324-62. He completed his father's siege on Bursa by taking it in 1326. He interviened in Byzantine affairs by aiding the Cantacuzenus family's power struggle against the Palaeologus family until, in 1354, the Ottomans were a peamanent presence in Europe. Who was he?
Orhan
He ruled the Ottomans from 1362-89. His forces took Adrianople and renamed it Edirne after making it their 2nd capitol. He started the devsirme (yeni ceri) system. Who was he
Murat I
He reigned from 1389 to 1401. His use of Christian crack troops against Muslim enemies makes him stand out as a genius.
Bayezit I
He reigned from 1413-21. The kapi kulari favored his brothers at his expense. He directed the Ottoman Empire back to the gazi tradition by putting Christian advisor out and limiting the power of the kapi kulari. He concentrated on annexing the Balkin states after the interegnum. Who was he?
Mehmet I
He was a reluctant sultan weary of power. He continued his father's (Mehmet I) policy of cementing Ottoman power but renewed Beyezit I's system of slave soldiers. He armed the new corps with gunpowder weapons. His concept was one of palance. A strong slave army balanced the power of a traditional army. Who was he?
Murat II
He was the sultan who conquered constantinople in 1453. Who was he?
Mehmet II
He ruled from 1481 to 1512. A reluctant warrior who preferred peace, his two main campains were agains Moldavia and the Mamluks. He took the Black Sea region to the mouth of the Danube. He gave the empire peace, improved and regularized the tax system, and reduced inflation. He left the empire in fine financial shape, ready for expansion.
Bayezit II
He reigned for 1512-20. He was an accomplished strategist. He eliminated the Savnavid threat and the Syrian Mamluks. He took the Egyptian Mamuluks shortly afterwards. Though he died young (40), he left the empire in a more powerful and secure position than had any of his predecessors. He left a vast, rich, and secure empire for his successor son, Suleyman. Who was he?
Salim I