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20 Cards in this Set

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At this battle in 1371, the Turks under Murad I demolished the coalition forces of the Serbs and the Bulgarians, with several Serbian princes dying on the field of battle. This allowed the Murad I to annex annexed southern Serbia. Name the battle.
Battle of Maritza
This is the battle where Murad I was killed by a Serbian assassin. Serbian Prince Lazar threw off Ottoman vassalage, and with a coalition of Christian lords and Serbians, met the Ottomans at this place. The Ottomans won, and Serbia was never again able to effectively fight the Turks. But both sides incurred heavy losses. Prince Lazar was also killed at this battle. Name this battle.
First battle of Kosovo
This battle occureed on October 17th - 19th, 1448. Led by John Hunyadi as part of a Hungarian-led crusade, it was fought against an Ottoman-led coalition under Sultan Murad II. The Ottoman Turks won and brought the Balkins back into subjgation. Janos Hunyadi escaped. The Albanian leader Skanderbeg and his troops moved to join the Hungarian coalition, but they were attacked by Đurađ Branković of Serbia and delayed, never having reached the battlefield.
Second Battle of Kosovo
This battle occurred in 1396. European cursaders gathered in Hungary. The moved down the Denube, taking and destroying Ottoman forts on the northern border, and laid siege at this Ottoman Fortress. Beyezit I returned by forced march from battles in Anatolia to defeat the Europeans. This detered European intervetion for another 50 years. Name the Battle.
Battle of Nicopolis
This battle took place on November 10, 1444 in eastern Bulgaria. In this battle the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Murad II defeated the Polish and Hungarian armies under Wladislaus III of Poland (Władysław III Warneńczyk in Polish) and Janos Hunyadi. Hunyadi barely escaped with his life. This allowed Murad II to bring the Balkins back into subjugation. Name the battle.
Battle of Varna
This battle fought on July 28, 1402, took place on the field of Çubukovasi between the forces of the Ottoman sultan Beyazid I and the Mongol horde of Timur, ruler of Timurid Empire. The Ottomans lost and Beyezit I was taken prisoner. He died in captivity. Name the Battle.
Battle of Ankara
This battle occurred on August 26, 1071 between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkish forces led by Alp Arslan, resulting in the defeat of the Byzantine Empire and the capture of Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes. The Romanus IV was freed only to be assassinated upon returning to Constantinople. This defeat allowed more Turkish incursion on Anatolia.
Battle of Manzikirt
At the (24 August 1516), the Turks let by Salim I defeated the Mamluks and killed Kansu, the Mamluk sultan. This allowed the inclusion of Syria into the Ottoman Empire.
Battle of Marj Dabik
These people were the first Turks to establish a true empire, lasting for 977 to 1186. Their name is taken from a city in Afghanistan, and their power extended to easter to central Iran, the lower Amu Darya region, northwestern India, as well as Afghanistan. The founder of power was Alp Tigan, a former servant from the Saminid Dynasty. Their origin was pure slave, and they claimed to be servants of the Caliph of Bhagdad. Who were they?
the Ghaznavids
These people were called the "Khans of Turkistan" by the Persians. There reign lasted from 992 to 1211. They were a tribal confederacy that emerged in Uzbecistan, Western China, and Kazakstan. They were the first Turkish dynasty to convert to Islam under Abdul Karib. Who were they?
the Quarakanids
This Mongol grandson of Jengiz Khan took Bhagdad in 1258 and created the Kingdom
of Il-Kahn. This Il-Khan dynasty subjugated the Seljuk sultinates and beys. He left Kit Buqa in charge of his army when he returned to Mongolia after his brother, Monkha, died. Under Kit Buqa, this army was defeated by the Egyptians at the Battle of Ain Jelut. Who was this Mongol founder of the Il-Khan kingdom. Who was this Mongol grandson of the Il-Khan Kingdom?
Hulagu
This Seljuk sultan ruled the Great Seljuk Empire from 1038 - 1063. He took Iran in 1040, the moved west and took Iraq in 1054. He restored the Abbasad Calaphate and was hail as a hero. Who was he?
Tugrel
Alp Arslan and Malikshah put the Great Seljuk Empire in the hands of their principal vezir. He was Persian, and he had trouble settling the nomadic Turks. Who was he?
Nizam al-Mulk
This Great Seljuk sultan was the son and successor of Alp Arslan. He ruled from 1072-1092. He defeated the Quarakanids. Who was he
Malikshah
This Great Seljuk sultan was the last one. He attempted to reconstitute Seljuk Rule in eastern Iran, but was captured by Turkish nomads, held prisoner for three years, and only freed a year before his death in 1157. Who was he?
Sanjar
These people claimed to be the successors of the Rum Seljuks after Rum Seljuk and Mongol power faded away. The Took the Rum Seljuk capitol of Konya as their own. They were defeated by Murat I in 1386. Beyezit I defeated and annexed them in 1397. They were left independent in 1435 by Murat II to avoid a war with Shah Rukh. Their independence was finally ended in 1468 by Mehmet II, but forces loyat to the bey remained in the Taurus mountians. Their existance went from 1256 to 1483. Who were they?
the Karamanids
It was an eastern Turkish Anatolian state and a rival to the Ottomans. In 1472, their leader, Uzun Hasan, entered a treated with the Venetians promising to provide him with weapons and support. Mehmet II defeated him in 1473, and this beylik no longer represented a threat. What was its name?
Ak Koyunlu
This Ottoman Rival was a Shiite nation that by 1510 under Shah Ismail, defeated the Ak Koyunlu in 1501 -03. By 1510, he conquered Iran, Azerbaijan, and eastern Anatolia. These people sent missionaries into the Ottoman empire. They were dependent on kizilbas (redheads). Salim I slaughtered their missionaries and supporters in Anatolia. Salim I defeated them at Caldaran in 1514. They maintained a "scorched earth" policy for the next 200 years to keep the Ottomans at bay. Who were they?
the Safavids
This Wallachian ruler is credited with creating the Wallachian state. He ruled from 1386 - 1418. He joined the Serbs in taking Silistria. In 1394 he met the army of Bayezit I at Rovine and eventually drove the Turks out of the country. Towards the end of his reign, he signed a treaty with the Ottomans. He is the grandfather of Vlad III Drakul. Who is he?
Mircea the Old
This Wallachian grandson of Mircea the Old stopped paying money to the Ottomans in 1459 and around 1460 made a new alliance with the Hungarians, much to the dislike of the Turks, who attempted to remove him. They failed; later, in the winter of 1461 to 1462 he south of the Danube and devastated the area between Serbia and the Black Sea, leaving over 20,000 people dead.

In response to this, Sultan Mehmed II, the recent conqueror of Constantinople, raised an army of around 60,000 men and in the spring of 1462 headed towards Wallachia. With his army of 20-30,000 men this voyevod was unable to stop the Turks from entering Wallachia and occupying the capital Târgovişte (June 4, 1462), so he resorted to guerrilla war, constantly organizing small attacks and ambushes on the Turks. The most important of these attacks took place on the night of June 16/17, when he and some of his men allegedly entered the main Turkish camp (wearing Turkish disguises) and attempted to assassinate Mehmed. The Turks eventually left the country, not before installing Vlad’s brother, Radu the Handsome, as the new prince; he gathered support from the nobility and chased him to Transylvania, and by August 1462 he had struck a deal with the Hungarian Crown. Consequently, he was imprisoned.
Who was he.
Vlad III Darkul