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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Central Hierarchy begins with....and then is followed by
-Begins with Sultan
-Grand Viziers were next, came from the Devshirme
Generic definition of GRAND VIZIR
-Grand Viziers: During the days of the Ottoman Empire the Grand Vizier was the -often de facto ruling- prime minister, second only to the Sultan (many of whom left politics to him, indulging in court pleasures) and was the leader of the Divan, the Imperial Council. During the days of the Ottoman Empire the Grand Vizier was the -often de facto ruling- prime minister, second only to the Sultan (many of whom left politics to him, indulging in court pleasures)
Definition of Devshirme
refers to the system used by the Ottoman sultans to tax newly conquered states, and build a loyal slave army and class of administrators: the Janissaries. The word literally means "gathering" in Turkish. The devshirmeh system was similar to a system used by earlier Islamic dynasties, such as the Abbasids who used slaves to build armies that were thought to be loyal to the ruler and thus provide a steady pool of manpower that was outside of local politics. The descendants of these slaves would form the Mamluk dynasties.
Sublime Porte
Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire . Ottoman Porte, Sublime Porte, and High Porte are similar terms for the Turkish Bab-ı Ali.

The Sublime Porte was the open court of the sultan, lead by the Grand Vizier.
First Administrative Unit
Sanjak, headed by "The Lord of the Standard" or SANJAK BEY.
--Sanjak: Literally means “banner”: subdivisions of the Ottoman provinces (Eyalet/province). Originally military districts, had corps of cavalry soldiers. Headed by Sanjak Bey, Lord of the Standard – similar to a district governor. Soldiers gathered for war depending on what Sanjak they lived in.
Province, the grouping of several sanjaks.
-Beylerbey or Pasha is also a term for this office
Syria's 4 provinces
Sham, Aleppo, Tripoli, Sidon
Iraq's 3 provinces
Baghdad, Mosul, Basra
Egypt/Yemen/N. Africa
-Egypt: 1, subdvisions were Mamluk Kashifs.
-Yemen: 2
-N. Africa: Each state each had 1
3 Divisions of Land Tenure in Ottoman Empire
1. Freehold (Milk is the property and Mulk is the governor)
2. Sate Land is MIRI
3. WAQF is Endowments (cannot be changed)
1 Type of Waqf
Pious waqf (Khayri): everything from a college to a fountain. An example is the Sinaniyya Mosque in 1581. This building makes the whole village waqf.
Another Waqf that took precedence
-Family waqf (family trust in perpetuity)
-Took precedence because it kept wealth in the family
Tax farming (a way to exploit state land)
-Tax Farms Tax farms (portions of land) would be granted to those who had distinguished themselves in the military or bureaucracy. The principle was considered very effective for tax revenue collection. In many parts of the world, including Europe, the Middle East and the Far East, tax farming was responsible for state consolidation and an increase in central autocracy.
Land grants (another way to exploit state land)
A land grant is a gift of land made by the government for projects such as roads, railroads, or rewards for military service, or especially academic institutions.
-Diff ones for soldiers/officers/and royal family - notables
3 Kinds of Provincial troops
1. Feudal Troops (Sipahs) are cavalry given land grants

2. Janissaries (infantry) are given salary and recruited 1st. They also receive 1/5 of booty, are devshirme, and Free Muslimss.

3. Mercenary Troops: Recruited from Anatolia at 1st and then N. Africa. A mercenary is a soldier who fights, or engages in warfare primarily for private gain, usually with little regard for ideological, national or political considerations.
Religious Institutions
-Official Islamic law was Hanafi but recognized others
-A Mufti (jurist) interprets the law and a Qadi (judge) administers the Law
Sufi Islam
-Popular Islam
-Sufism, detaching from worldy wealth
-Dependence on G-d and influenced by Christian mysticism and Buddhists.
Kizlar Agha
The Kizlar Agha was the third highest-ranking officer of the empire, after the Sultan and the Grand Vizier (Chief Minister). He was the commander of the baltaci corps (or halberdiers - part of the imperial army). His position was a pasha (general) of three tails (tails referring to peacock tails, and the most number of tails permitted being four and worn by the Sultan). He could approach the Sultan at any time, and functioned as the private messenger between the Sultan and the Grand Vizier. He was the most important link between the Sultan and the Valide Sultan (mother of the Sultan).
Grand Vizier II
Minister of the sultan and member of the imperial council. Vizier was the highest rank in the military/administrative hierarchy of the Empire; the chief minister (like a prime minister) was the Grand Vizier
KOPRULUS were most important who ruled from 1656 to the end of that century
Sublime Porte II
Ottoman Empire palace entrance that provided access to the chief minister (see Grand Vizier), who represented the government and the sultan. Term came to mean the Ottoman government.