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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is FUCOSE
Fucose is a deoxy monosaccharide derivative that we form from deoxymannose
Most anitgenic glycoproteins and glycolipids contain fucose
why is fucose important
important in brain development and immune system recognition
also important in the development of certain cancers
what is the NOTCH system
signaling system that is highly conserved and is used for cellular differentiation
what is the SELECTIN system?
Selectin system is used for white blood cell migration into tissues
what oligosaccharides contain Fucose that we are concerned with?
Selectin
Notch
what is the function of SELECTIN
Selectin is a protein (a lectin) in white blood cells that recognizes fucose-containing oligosaccharides on the surface of endothelial cells that line our blood vessels
what does selectin allow white blood cells to do?
It allows WBCs to stick and then enter various tissues in our body
what is the process of plaque formation?
Tethering > Rolling > Adhesion > Extravasation
what is the best known roll of NOTCH signaling?
Nerve cell development
what does the notch system require for nerve cell development?
FUCOSE
What are some examples of cancers that have an overexpression of Notch signaling?
T-cell acute l;ymphoblastic leukemia
Cervical cancer
Basal cell carcinoma
Small-cell lung carcinoma
Breast cancer
Prostate cancer
Neuroblastoma
What foods do we get FUCOSE from?
MUSHROOMS
True or False
FUCOSE is the antigenic monosaccharide in blood group glycolipids
False
it is not the antigenic monosaccharide but its an important component of these antigens
What types of antibodies are produced by a monosaccharide with terminal galactose and fucose?
Antibodies against A and B antigens are produced
What type of antibodies are produces by a monosaccharide with terminal fucose and N-acetylgalactosamine?
antibodies against B antigens are produced
what is Ceramide?
a sphingolipid that has a sphingosine backbone and one fatty acid that anchors the carbohydrate for the blood group antigens in the RBC membrane
Where is Galactose synthesized?
Galactose is synthesized in the Mammary Gland
How is Lactose synthesized in the mammary gland?
UDP-glucose-4-epimerase is used to convert Glucose > Galactose
Lactose synthase is then used to produce Lactose
what controls the enzyme lactose synthase?
Prolactin through alpha-lactalbumin
what does a gene defect in UDP-galactose-4-epimerase cause?
Type III galactosemia
this is a rare event
what accounts for >80% of mammary gland glucose uptake?
Lactose synthase
what is the enzyme lactose synthase composed of?
2 proteins
Galactosyl transferase
Alpha-lactalbumin
what is a key regulatory component of lactose synthase enzyme?
Alpha-lactalbumin
what stimulates milk production?
Prolactin
What inhibits milk production?
Progesterone
What is the most abundant protein in milk?
Alpha-lactalbumin
why is lactose concentration in homo sapiens milk higher than in any other mammal?
they think it is for Good Brain Development
why does human milk contain different kinds of oligosaccharides?
Human milk is 7% lactose
55-70 g/L milk
High lactose is for good brain development
other oligosaccharides in milk infants canNOT digest
> used to feed gut bacteria
what is the most abundant oligosaccharide present in milk?
FUCOSE
what is Bifidobacteria
has a transporter that produces UDP-Glc
posses a unique fructose-6-phosphate phosphketolase pathway employed to ferment carbohydrates
what is the composition of Human milk?
5 monosaccharides
1. D-glucose
2. D-galactose
3. N-acetylglucosamine
4. L-fucose
5. Sialic acid
what are the functions of oligosaccharides found in human milk?
Digestion resistance
Pre-biotic stimulation of GI microbiota
Decoy receptors-toxins
Pathogens
what is Sialic acid?
N-acetylneuraminic acid is a monosaccharide derivative that is formed each day in large amounts
What is Sialic acid used for?
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine > CMP-Sialic acid
Uses CTP to activate Sialic acid to form glucosidic bonds
Why is Sialic acid important?
is the usual attachment point for bacterial toxins and viruses
Many tumor cells have altered the Sialic acid content of their membranes and this is thought to be involved in the spread of tumor cells
What are some of the biological functions of Sialic acid?
Cell adhesion
Cell signaling
Glycoprotein stability
Bacterial virulence
Tumor metastasis
What is the medical importance of Sailic acid?
Influenza inhibitor
Marker for some cancers
What pathway is used to form amino sugars?
Glutamine is always used to put an amino group into a monosaccharide to form an amino sugar
where does Nitrogen group come from in an amino sugar?
GLUTAMINE
the pathway is called the Hexosamine Pathway which forms all amino sugars
What is glucuronic acid?
Glucose is used to form glucoronic acid in the liver.
Sugar acid monosaccharide derivative
how is Glucuronic acid formed?
Formed from Glucose
Glucose > Glucose-6-Phosphate > Glucose-1-Phosphate > UDP-Glucuronic acid > D-Glucuronic acid-1-phosphate > D Glucuronic acid
why is Glucuronic acid important?
UDP-glucuronic acid is used to synthesize oligosaccharides/polysaccharides that contain glucuronic acid
-used for detoxification
what is Glucuronic acid an important component of?
Important component of GAGs
1. GlcUA: beta-D-Glucuronic acid
2. IdoUA: alpha-L-iduronic acid
3. Gal: beta-D-galactose
4. GaINAc: beta-D-N-acetylgalactosamine
5. GlcNac: alpha-D-N-acetylglucosamine
What acid do we use to get rid of bilirubin, steroids, drugs, and xenobiotics?
Glucuronic acid
What is the pentose phosphate pathway?
off shoot of glycolysis pathway
Glucose-6-Phosphate > Ribulose-5-Phosphate
where is the pentose phosphate pathway found?
in cytoplasm of all cells
What are the end products of the pentose phosphate pathway?
There are three different end products that are produced depending on the need of the body:
1. NADPH
2. Ribose
3. ATP
What is the rate-limiting and commitment step of the pentose phosphate pathway?
generation of NADPH
this is the first step in the PPP
what points in the PPP can we move back into glycolysis?
Glucose-6-Phosphate
Fructose-6-phosphate
Glyceraldehyde-3-phoshpate
what is used to determine how much glucose-6-phosphate is sent through the PPP?
The activity of G-6-P dehydrogenase is used to determine this
how much glucose-6-phosphate typically gets sent through the PPP?
~30% of glucose-6-phosphate goes through the PPP
what is the role of NADPH generated by the pentose phosphate pathway?
Anabolic pathways:
Fatty acid synthesis
Cholesterol synthesis
Fatty acid chain elongation
Reduction of equivalents of P450 hydroxylation of aromatic compounds, alcohols, steroids, drugs
what cells have the highest concentration of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase?
Phagocytic cells
NADPH oxidase uses NADPH to convert molecular oxygen into superoxides > generates ROS > kill phagocytized microorganisms (bacteria)
True or False
WBCs have a higher level of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase than RBC
True