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53 Cards in this Set

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What is the purpose of the OT Practice Framework
·Provides descriptions and a common terminology.
·Helps explain our work to external audiences.
·Outlines the domain (the “what”) and the process (the “how”) used to deliver services (broad and inclusive).
What is a domain?
The scope/area of practice.
What are the OT domains?
Domain – the scope or area of practice.
OT domains:
1. Performance in areas of occupation – ADL, IADL, work, play, leisure, education, social participation.
1. Performance skills
2. Performance patterns
3. Context
4. Activity Demands
5. Client Factors
What does the Standards of Practice oultine?
1.Identifies the minimum standards of OT practice.
2.Guidelines for delivery of OT services that are client-centered and interactive.
3.May be used to determine if an OT has performed appropriately.
4.Identifies differences between OTR and COTA in each area.

OT services must be delivered an OTR or COTA.
OTRs and COTAs work collaboratively.
The nature of OT servies are client-centered, collaborative, and interactive.
Educational requirements: COTA 2 year Associate’s, OTR – the school MUST be accredited by AOTA..
Standard I
Professional Standing and Responsibility
1.Legal and ethical practice
2.Professional responsibilities beyond practice (stay current on research)
3.Ability to give/get supervision.
Standard II
Referral - usually by a doctor
Standard III
Asking yourself if the client is ready for therapy.
Are they a good candidate.
Standard IV
1.More in-depth than screening.
2.Data collection, determining needs.
3.Selecting and administering evaluation techniques.
Standard V
Intervention Plan
1.A plan for the therapy program. Includes measurable, client-centered goals.
2.Based on evaluation.
Standard VI
-The actual intervention as opposed to the plan
1.It is the use of purposeful activity and occupations to maximize function or occupational performance.
2.Re-evaluation, modification, documentation, communication.
Standard VII
Transition Services
1.Follow-up, home program, home evaluation, transition to another environment.
2. Preparation of plan facilitation with team, family, individual and important others.
Standard VIII
1.Determine time for discharge
2.Documentation and recommendations
What is occupational Science
Occupational science was formally founded in the late 1980s to 1990s.
Areas of focus in study of OS:
1.The form of occupation - that which is observable. How occupations are performed.
2.The function of occupation - the ways in which occupation influences/affects development, adaptation, health and the quality of life.
3.The meaning of occupation – the subjective experience of engage in occupations. The significance occupations have for people.
What is a role?
positions in society having responsibilities and privileges.
What are occupations?
goal-directed pursuits that have meaning to the person and involve multiple tasks and are made up of
What is purposeful activity
an activity that has a functional purpose but may not necessarily be important to a person or group. Example: A purposeful activity would be peeling potatoes but the occupation would be cooking. The occupation has meaning.)
What are tasks?
combinations of actions with a purpose
What are actions?
observable behaviors
What are abilities/skills?
traits or characteristics that support occupational performance
What distinguishes OT as a health profession from a medical profession?
1.OT is “doing with,” not a “doing to” profession.
2.Client-centered care – collaborating with the client to set treatment goals.
3.OT intervention needs to be supported by research – evidence-based.
What are roles?
a set of behaviors that have some socially agreed upon function and for which there is an accepted code of norms.
What are habits?
specific automatic behaviors VS. (can be useful-brushing teeth, impoverished – eating at night, OR dominating – interfere with daily life – substance abuse)
What are routines?
– established sequences of occupations or activities that provide a structure for daily life. Influenced by our biological clock and very much influenced by society (a lot of habits together)
What are rituals?
meaningful patterns of behavior – religious or secular – weddings, things people like to do.
What is the systems theory?
A system is a whole made of up parts, interrelated, interdependent. A living system is an open system
Input information is processed and results in behavioral change or output. A LINEAR pattern of events occurs. How things interact in a system: INPUT, THROUGHPUT, OUTPUT, FEEDBACK. In humans this is called learning or adaptation.
In open systems, there is interaction or feedback from the action itself and the output.
Humans are both open systems and dynamic systems.
Dynamic Systems
·Systems that change with time.
·More complex than a systems theory.
·Behavior results from interaction of many systems simultaneously in a NONLINEAR fashion
·Studies of complex dynamic systems suggest that living systems are self-organizing and pattern forming.
What is the Person-environment-occupational performance model (PEOP)?
An occupational therapy model, which grows out of systems theory
Three components
1.what people do in their daily lives
2.what motivates them personal characteristics combine with the situations and influence performance
Personal Factors
Intrinisic factors that influence performance
Neurobehavioral Factors
Physiological Factors
Cognitive Factors
Psychological and Emotional Factors
Spiritual Factors
Extrinsic factors that influence performance
Social support
Social and economic systems
Culture and values
Built environment and technology
Natural environment
Underlying Beliefs of the PEOP model
·People are naturally motivated to explore and demonstrate mastery of their world
·Mastery occurs through the process of adaptation
·Experiencing success increases motivation to face more challenges
·Through their occupations people accomplish goals which have personal meaning develop self-identify and fulfillment
·Fulfillment comes from mastery and from accomplishing goals, which have personal meaning.
Social-Cognitive Theory of Motivation
·Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986)
·Believes one will take an action to produce an effect unless they face environmental constraints
·Successful experiences lead to expectation of future success
·People will choose to do things they are capable of doing. Katie chose to say (rather than sing) “Mary had a little lamb.”
Internal and External Locus of Control (comes from social-cognitive theory)
an internal locus of control (feels personally responsible for outcome) or an external locus of control (feels that the outcome is the responsibility of the therapist).
Personal Causation Theory of Motivation
Where is the cause of one’s behaviors, internal or external? (She thought she was acting the way people do after an injury)
Competence (part of the intrinsic theory of motivation)
Need to feel competence - provides drive for exploring, manipulating acting on the environment.
Engagement in satisfying pursuits. The pursuit is so good that you lose your sense of time. Time just flies by. There needs to be enough of a challenge.
Future orientation
People may choose to do activities they believe will help them become their chosen “possible self”, or avoid becoming a negative possible self.**VERY IMPORTANT FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES
Beliefs, roles, cultural background, past experiences, expectations about occupations and how well they are performed
A change a person makes in his/her response approach when that person encounters occupational challenge.
This must occur when a person’s usual responses are found inadequate for producing some degree of mastery over the challenge.
What Is The Relationship Between The Process Of Adaptation, Occupational Therapy and the Role of the Occupational Therapist?
Motivation, environmental arousal, and press

If you get a client to do something a little hard, his abilities will improve. Example: athletic training.
What is press?
The degree to which a place creates a demand for, or expectations for, behavior.
High press
– a classroom with too many things hanging all over the room
Low press
a nursing home with little stimuli
The 7 contexts that impact performance
1. physical environment: design, space, objects, locations
2. social environment customs: expected behaviors
3. cultural environment: attitudes, prejudices
4. temporal environment: time of day, season, etc.
5. spiritual environment: relationship to the larger world and meaning in living
6. Effects of the virtual environment: clinic setting
7. Personal
Mental Functions
Part of client factors.
Mental functions include cognitive, perceptual, and affective (emotional) factors.
Cognitive Factors
the way you use your process skills. Ex. You could be really bright but not be able to notice things
Name the 4 types of memory
Declarative - verbal (being able to recite from a lecture)
Procedural - performance (when you so something many times and you just know how to do it from practicing and repeating)
Prospective - thinking about things in the future
Retrospective -remembering your past
Sensory memory - raw info - up to 2 seconds
Immediate/working memory - temporary storage - you start to combine it with other things you know and it is labeled and you pay attn to it and it it is put together in little chunks
LONG TERM MEMORY-stored with cues that help you retrieve it
Perceptual functions of memory
Visuospatial perception and
Interpretation of sensory stimuli (tactile, visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory)
What is the illness experience?
The way the person relates his illness in terms of various life experiences
What is the sick role?
Everyone starts helping the sick person, and he/she starts to rely on others to meet his needs even if can do things for himself.
What is the difference between an explanatory model and an illness and disability narrative?
The explanatory model is used by the professional while the illness narrative is used by the client.
What is liminality?
The time during which individuals are undergoing a change in status. They belong neither to their former nor their future status.
What personal influences impact the meaningfulness of occupations?
1. personal context, spiritual context
2. personality
3. goals - drive therapy
4. balance
5. level of engagement
6. personal patterns: habits, roles, routines, rituals.
7. meaning