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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Risk factors and how to assess osteoporosis
Diet
Physical Activity
Reproductive Status
Smoking, Alcohol
Immobility
Systemic Illness
Age, Sex, Meds, Genetics
Test with DEXA SCAN
What pathologic processes increase risk for osteoporosis
Dx of increased PTH: HyperPTH
Malignancy
Dx of Decrease in Vit D
Cushing's
DM1
Adrenal Insufficiency
Dx of Sex hormones
Anorexia
Beta Thalassemia
Describe the role of male gonadal hormones in determining peak bone density
Timing and onset of puberty,
Testosterone increases the size and strength of bones and increase bone density
Describe Risk factors for male osteoporosis
Hypogonadism
Renal Calcium Leak
HyperProlactinemia
Chronic Alcoholism
Tx Options for male osteoporosis
Androgens are given vs estrogen replacement therapy for girls. Teriparatide, which is an rPTH is also given as a daily injection
describe the timing of puberty with the determination of peak bone density
delayed puberty = impaired peak bone density
Constitutional delay have lower bone densities compared to normal onset puberty. once epiphyseal plates close, the ability to increase bone density decreases.
Describe the clinical presentation of hypercalcemia
hypertension and bradycardia
proximal muscle weaknes
bony tenderness to palpation
anorexia or nausia
hyperreflexia/tongue fasciculations
lethargy/stupor
Describe the clinical presentation of Hypocalcemia
TETANY
numbness and tingling of extremities
carpopedal spasm
laryngeal stridor
tremor/chorea
siezures
Describe the clinical presentation of vit D deficiency
Similar to hypocalcemia
Describe the clinical presentation of bone matrix abnormalities
osteoporosis: fractures of the spine, wrist, and hip.
vertebral bodies are crushed, resulting in loss of height
Osteomalacia: weakness, fracture, pain, anorexia, weight loss
Describe the clinical presentation of Paget's Disease
increased skeletol warmth
bowing deformities
hyperexpansion of the skull
spinal cord compression
Hearing loss due to compression of the cochlear nerve