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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What can women die of in the third trimester if they are not vaccinated?
The vaccine for what illness is live and causes a crust in the area of injection?
Small Pox vaccine.
What is the big deal with Rubella?
Congential Rubella Syndrome, not the childhood, adolescent, adult 3-day measles course of the infection. It is only bad if the woman is pregnant.
What is the concern with Varicella-zoster?
It is DNA (different than the others) and can become latent.
Is MMR an RNA or DNA virus?
RNA virus
Is Varicella an RNA or DNA virus?
DNA virus
What is the ultimate goal of any vaccine?
To get the same level of immunity caused by wild type infection. This is VERY difficult to do.
The efficacy of the varicella vaccine is only 71-86%. With the wild type, it's 99%. What are these numbers thought of as?
Primary vaccine failure.
To solve the problem of the varicella primary vaccine failure, what are we now doing?
We are now giving MMR-V!!
In order to get more efficacy with the varicella vaccine, what must happen?
The vaccine must become less attenuated.
10% of kids with MMR vaccine get a high fever and rash shortly after, mainly from what component?
Rubeola component.
What is an advantage of these vaccines?
We are preventing many bad complications.
What is a disadvantage of these vaccines?
We are making people less immune than from the wild type.
How shout a sick (leukemia, HIV) patient be given a live, attenuated vaccine?
In a controlled manner (in a hospital) than to let them get it otherwise.
What are exanthems?
Rashes on exterior.
What disease doesn't cause exanthems?
What are enenathems?
On the inside of the body, such as the mucous membranes.
What does macular mean?
A red area.
What does maculopapular mean?
Raised and red.
What does papular mean?
Just raised.
What does petechial mean?
Small hemorrhages.
What does purpuric mean?
Bigger hemorrhages.
In what illness is a papulovesicular rash found?
Chicken pox
What is the sequence of rashes in chidken pox?
What disease causes a lot exanthems and enanthems?
What is special about the non-viral causes of petechial or purpuric exanthems?
What are some non-viral causes of petechial or purpuric exanthems?
Meningooccemia, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and sepsis
Why is varicella called varicella zoster?
B/c it causes chickenpox as well as zoster or shingles later in life when reactivated.
How does the varicella virus enter?
Enters via the respiratory mucosa-->blood-->skin
What type of appearance does the varicella-zoster virus cause on the skin?
Causes a "tear-drop on a rose petal" appearance. This is a clear, non-pustular "drop" on top of an erythematous base. This is a tight, non-umbilical lesion.
What is the difference in the classic presentation of varicella-zoster virus in kids vs. adults?
Kids: Fever and rash start at the same time
Adults:Fever comes first and then the rash
Decribe the progression of the varicella-zoster rash?
Macule-->papule-->vesicle-->crust over an 8 hour period.
For how many days, does the rash progression of the varicella-zoster virus occur?
For 4 or 5 days.
With varicella-zoster, what is the primary infection? secondary infection?
Primary infection is varicella. Secondary infection is zoster.
Can someone get zoster from someone with zoster?
NO, but the person with zoster can give you varicella.
Are MMR-V public health emergencies?
Yes, must report them!
What serological test is done to make sure that a patient has varicella?
IgM for varicella.
Why should an IgM for varicella be ordered over an IgG?
IgG would tell us about old stuff, not whats happening now.
What is the clinical presentation of varicella?
1.Incubation period=8-21 days
2.Followed by tiredness, fever, and vesicles
What is the clincial presentation of varicella-zoster?
1.Zoster is expressed along nerves
2.Presentation is centripetal
What does centripetal mean?
Means that it is concentrated near the center of the body, where it is warmest.
What is the clincial presentation of smallpox?
What does centrifugal mean?
Presents on extremities and face first.
What is the difference b/w the clinical presentation of varicella vs. smallpox?
What can happen in the varicella lesions?
Kids can get superinfections in the varicella lesions-->sustain major neurological problems
Who can get fatal varicella?
Immunocomprimised (HIV, chemo, transplants, high dose steroids,etc)
What anomalies with varicella are a major problem?
Congential anomalies.
What are the diagnostic tests that can be done for varicella?
2.culture immunofluorescence
For varicella serology, what must be checked?
Zoster in adulthood coming from varicella is due to what?
A decline in T-cell mediated immunity.
Why is antibody not so important with varicella?
Varicella is a herpes virus so it infects from cell to cell.
What is the infective time frame of varicella?
1 day pre-rash, 7 days post rash
When is the infective period for varicella virus over?
Infective period is over once the last crop crusts.
When should one release a child with varicella?
Watches the crops coming and going for 4 or 5 days, until one sees that the last crop is crusting over and no new ones are coming in prior to releasing the child.
To determine is an individual has had a chronic exposure to varicella, what serology test should be done?
Who is it important to NOT give the varicella vaccine?
Can the varicella vaccine be given to a pregnant female?
What vaccine cannot be given to someone with an allergy to neomycin?
Varicella vaccine