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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Static Refraction?
Measurement of refractive error with accomodation AT REST.
Dynamic Refraction?
Measurement of refractive error with accomodation NOT AT REST.
Perfect Vision (20/20 or better), light rays focused on retina.
Light rays not focused on retina, MO, HO, AT
Describe the passage of light through the eye.
Cornea>Anterior Chamber>Lens>Vitreous>Macula>Optic Nerve
What are the most important determinants for sight clarity?
Axial length of the eye (how long the eye grows), and curvature of the eye.
Give the word for the following definition: Eyes adjust lenses to zoom when seeing. This shows no change in static refraction but changes with dynamic refraction.
What is optical infinity?
Distance >20 feet all light entering the eye is considered to be parallel rays.
What is the pattern of sign development from birth to adulthood?
An opthalmological condition that manifests itself through nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, red eyes, eye strain, pain in or around eyes, blurred vision, HA, & occasional double vision.
This is a unit of refractive error, 1 diopter lens will bend light 1cm and 1m distance.
How can one test if one's glass is minus lense?
By moving the glass horizontally and seeing if your sight drift with it.
What is applied to detect lens fit, tear passage, and corneal abrasion?
What will happen to patients who mix different brands and wear contact lenses at longer duration than prescription?
This can lead to giant papillary conjunctivitis due to self-protein deposition.
This is the most preventable case since it occurs with MO and HO, it is the notion of having 2 rays of light striking at the retina indicating the appearance of 2 planes.
Partial or 1 eye vision loss due to the recession of near point (can't see up close) caused by the weakness/rigidity of eye tissue.
Which eye dysfunction is highly age dependent, everyone gets it after early 40s?
The problem of brain interpretation of optics interfering with accurate recording record from the computer measurements occurs with what method used to measure refractive status?
Trial Lens Set
What machine has over a million different lens combinations?
What measures curvature of anterior surface of the cornea, assesses astigmatism?
What uses a computer to give a diagnosis and opthalmologist fine tunes the results?
What things should be focused on in the case history?
Onset, duration, frequency, and relief.
This test to used to determine if an eye problem is caused by a pathologic reason or by a refractory reason.
Pin hole test
Using a pin hole, if patient can see better through its small focus, then what problem does the patient have?
Refractory problem.
If the pinhole test does NOT improve patient sight, then what must be done.
Then the patient has a pathology that needs to be considered from else where.
What is a clouding of the lens in the eye?
If the cataract is yellow, what will be the result?
It will block blue light from entering the eye. People can have very distorted perception of light if they possess cataracts.
What is the opening of the eye?
What are the parasympathetically innervated muscles?
Ciliary bodies, iris sphincter
What are the sympathetically innervated fibers going radially like spokes of a wheel?
Radial fibers-->All 3 of these muscles go 360 degrees around the entire eye
What are the fibers that are attached to the ciliary bodies and the lens?
When ciliary bodies constrict what happens?
Lens will become thicker allowing us to see near.
Define cataract?
A clouding of the normally clear and transparent lens of the eye.
What is the differential diagnosis of cataracts?
It is important to differentiate catarcts with scars or other things on the cornea that are not in the lens.
How can one tell if a patient has a cataract?
If you look through their pupil and you see white.
What does leukocoria mean?
White pupil.
Clouding of this type of cataract appears in the nucleus.
Central (nuclear) cataract
This type of cataract causes a problem on a bright day where the pupil is constricted.
Central (nuclear) cataract
In this type of cataract, clouding appears in the cortex around the nucleus.
Peripheral (cortical) cataract
Patients with this type of cataract will see well on a bright day.
Peripheral (cortical) cataract
In this type of cataract, clouding occurs just below the capsule in the posterior portion of the lens.
Posterior subcapsular cataract.
Shining a flashlight tangentially to the cornea and looking at the angel the iris makes with the cornea....this checks for what?
If the angel between the iris and cornea is narrow and you dilate the pupil...what will happen?
Increase in pressure-->glaucoma
Shining a flashlight tangentially to the cornea and looking at the angel the iris makes with the cornea....this test is called what?
Provocative test.
What are the 5 contraindications to dilating a pupil?
1.Narrow angle glaucoma
2.Head Trauma
3.Hypertension with phenylephrine
4.4 Loop IOL (Intra Ocular Lens)
5.Allergy to drug
What is a growth on the cornea that may look like a cataract to the untrained eye?
Can a cataract be seen on a CT scan?
If there is a retinal tear, what shape will be seen on an ultrasound of the eye?
What do cataracts do to objects in bright light?
A glare or halo may appear around objects in bright light.
An ultrasonic device that has a vibrating tip, aspiration hole, and irrigation hole with silicon sheet to protect the cornea from burning from the intense vibrations.
What method works by using the vibration to break up the lens material, then irrigating and aspirating the broken contents out?
Is laser used in the procedure for phacoemulsification?
What type of extraction: The lens capsule is removed in one piece and then a probe freezes at the end causing the remainder of the lens to stick to it and remove the rest of the lens whole. This is not really done anymore and is rather traumatic ripping the zonules and involving a large incision and about 45 minutes worth of suture time with a very thin material. Only performed in 3rd world countries.
Intercapsular Cataract Extraction
What type of extraction?
In this surgery, you open the front of the capsule like you would in the phacoemulsification, and then remove the cortex and nucleus in one huge chunk. This one involved a large incision as well.
Extracapsular Cataract Extraction
What term refers to a normal eye without glasses or contacts?
This means with out a lens as in cataract surgery where the lens is removed. This includes glasses or contacts used to correct for the absence of a lens in the eye.
This is when you replace the cataract lens with an artificial intraocular lens.
This lens is permanent and will provide excellent central and peripheral vision.
Intraocular lens
This lens has 4 positioning holes and 2 flexible loops on both sides to hold it in position. The lens is injected into place through a syringe into the remaining capsular bag (remember the back of the capsule was left in the eye.)
Intraocular lens
A cataract of the remaining posterior capsule that the intraocular lens is sitting in is called what?
Secondary cataract.
What is a secondary cataract treated with?
YAG laser.
1/3 will develop secondary cataracts in first 3 months, the rest of the patients will take various amount of time to develop.
Secondary cataract.
How does a YAG laser used to treat secondary cataract work?
YAG laser is used to pop a whole in the capsule. This is very fast and quick. It works similar to a "sonic boom" breaking the capsule apart.
When people say that they had cataract laser surgery, what surgery are they talking about?
Secondary cataract surgery, not from the original removal of the cataract.
Where can secondary implants used for vision correction be placed?
Anterior Chamber (front of pupil)
Posterior Chamber (behind pupil)