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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
(standing, bending over)
Evaluates for functional (reduces on forward bend) vs. structural (does not reduce on bend) scoliosis, kyphosis, or kyphoscoliosis of thoracic spine
Adam’s sign/position
Decrease/absence of pulse indicates compression of neurovascular bundle by ant scalene, 1st rib, of mass (tumor)
Adson’s (reverse Adson’s) tests
(SLR with foot dorsiflexion)

If dorsiflexion produces pain in 0-35 degree (of SLR), suspect extradural sciatic nerve irritation
If dorsiflexion produces pain in 35-70 degree (of SLR), suspect intradural sciatic nerve irritation (disc pathology)
Braggard’s test
Sciatic pain on extension of knee while sitting indicates sciatic compression (disc protrusion)
Bechterew’s test
(malingering test)
Patient with LBP should be able to perform this maneuver
Burn’s bench test
Compression of intervertebral foramina
-Radicular pain
Compression of apophyseal joints
-Apophyseal cupsulitis
Compression of intervertebral discs
-Radicular pain
C-spine compression test
If pain increases
Suspect muscle strain, spasm, lig sprain
If pain decreases
Suspect foraminal encroachment or disc defect
C-spine distraction test
(malingering test)
No posterior pressure downward under “unaffected” leg/heel
Hoover’s sign
Pain on side of bending indicates possible lateral disc lesion
Pain on opposite side of bending indicates possible medial disc lesion
Kemp’s test
(hip and knee flexed 90 degrees)
Inability to straighten leg or pain indicates meningeal irritation or nerve root issue
Kernig’s test
>70 degrees hip flex suspect lumbar joint pain
35-70 degrees hip flex suspect sciatic nerve irritation
<35 degrees hip flex suspect extradural involvement (piriformis or SI joint)
Straight leg raise
(straight leg raise—leg flexion)

Positive for sciatic radiculopathy when hip flexed and leg extended
Positive for sciatic radiculopathy when no pain with both flexed
Lasegue’s test
(supine w/ passive neck flexion)
Passive flex of neck stretches dural sac
Pain reproduction may indicate disc lesion at level of pain
-Sharp, diffuse pain or involuntary hip move may indicate meningeal irritation
Lindner’s test
during neck flex pt flexes knees (reduces strain on dural sac—indicates meningeal irritation)
Brudzinski’s sign
same as Brudzinski's except with sternum held “down”—isolates c-spine
Soto-Hall test
-Supine with both heels off table x ~30 sec, positive = pain
-Increases subarachnoid pressure, pain indicative of within or just outside spinal cord (i.e. disc herniation)
Milgram’s test
(sit to stand)
Patient with avoid standing on side where sciatic pain exists
Minor’s sign
Pain on side being tested:
Compression of the neurovascular bundle (TOS), muscle strain, muscle spasm, adhesions, lig injury (sprain)

Pain of opposite side being: tested Foraminal encroachment, facet pathology, or disc defect
Shoulder depression test
Space occupying lesion (mass, disc defect, etc.)
Valsalva test
Vertebral artery tests
—seated with head extended and rotated—looking for signs of vertebral aa compression
Maigne’s Test
—head off table—examiner performs passive extension/rotation
Vertebral artery test
Vert aa test

head off table with rotation/extension looking for signs of compression
Dekleyn’s test (pt “performs”)
Decrease or absence of radial pulse indicates compression by pec minor muscle (hypertrophied or spastic) or by deformed coracoid process
Wright’s (hyperabduction test)