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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what animals are infected by flu A?
ppl, birds, animals, note some can infect all of them
what cells does flu attack? Does it cause viremia?
URT and LRT. No
what are complications seen in kids under 3?
gastroenteritis and ACUTE OTITIS MEDIA
what complication acounts for the majority of deaths?
secondary bac pneumonia, note primary viral pneumonia may also occur and is more fatal but occurs less frequently
describe the rare complication seen in children who are treated with salicylates and have the flue.
reye's syndrome, non inflammatory enceph with liver damage that is often fatal
what differentiates the subtypes of flu A? What animals have all subtypes? What have humans had?
different HA's and NA's bc differences cause different antibodies, water fowl have all subtypes, ppl have only had H1N1, H2N2, H3,N2
how do you distinguish bw type A and type B?
Ab's against the matrix protein.
can type B infect animals?
no only ppl
how do flu A viruses change their subtypes?
by antigenic shift, causes pandemics bc no one has the ntibody as soon as the new one pops up
what human subtypes are going on now?
H3N2, H1N1. note that almost had an H2N2 outbreak from regular lab testing!!
why are H1N2 viruses not a concern?
they are a combo of H1N1 and H3N2, their HA which is the antigenically important one is not different
what is theory on antigenic shift in type A flu?
flu A can infect ppl, animal, and birds. It can also reassort its 8 RNAs if co-infected with two strains in the same animal. So say a pig gets infected with one type from a duck and one type from the farmer. They reassort and then you get something with a new HA that can infect ppl now.
describe antigenic drift in flu.
A and B can do this, there are 4 antigen sites on each monomer of the HA trimer, antigenic drift will at least 2 of these by random mutations in the RNA resulting in the same virus (still H1N1) but has different antigenic sites now. This is why we need new vaccines each year
describe how epidemics of flu are recorded and reported in the US.
flu is the ONLY disease that causes a spike in the number of deaths caused by respiratory causes, US has developed a seasonal baseline to the week (bc flu cycles yearly) by percentage of deaths each year due to flu. If we get a spike of 1.7 standard deviations from the baseline (epidemic threshold) we have an epidemic
how is the flu vaccine determined each year?
WHO coordinates iinternational network of flu centers which determine the prevalent strains WW each year. Then one H3N2, one H1N1, and one B flu strain is picked for a trivalent vaccine
describe the vaccine to be administered in 2007.
killed and attenuated viruses of A/wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2), A/solomon islands/3/2006 (HINI), and B/malaysia/2506/2004
how can you make vaccine that has inactivated virus and treated by removing the parts that are unnecessary for reproduction? (killed vaccine)
producing a subvirion preperation or a purified surface antigen preperation, both are considered split viruses
what is the live attenuated vaccine composed of>
cold adapted virus that only grows in the URT mucous thus it gets IgA… unlike killed
who can get the attenuated vaccine?
only those bw 5 and 49
bird flu info?
H5N1, a zoonosis now, only can get it from birds, ppl to ppl does not happen, 150 million chickens have been slaughtered to try to stop these outbreaks, 319 known human cases since 2003 with 192 deaths
H5N1 is susceptable to what?
oseltamivir
clinical dx of inluenza is usually what?
influenza like illness
dx for epidemiologic standpoints?
gold standard is culture in chicken egg and HI test and test with anti HA antibody
what is the rapid dx test?
EIA test kits that distinguish between A and B but are not too sensitive or specefic…. Lab will do immunofluorescence later to verify…