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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acute
Having a sudden onset, sharp rise, and short course
Analgesic
a substance to reduce pain
Ankylosis
stiffness or fixation of a joint by disease or surgery
Anti-biotics
substance to kill or wound micro-organisms
Anti-inflammatories
medication which given by injection or pill reduces the components of inflammation
Antipyretic
a substance to reduce fever
Arthrofibrosis
intra-articular scarring leading to impaired motion or function
Arthroplasty
to modify a joint by microfracture or resurfacing
Arthroscopic debridement
to clean out the joint, usually the knee
Arthroscopy
joint examination with a fiber-optic endoscope placed into the joint
Atrophy
loss of muscle fiber cross-sectional area
Autograft
same individual's tissue
Allograft
donor tissue from same species
Avulsion fracture
a ligament or tendinous attachment is pulled off with a piece of bone because the attachment was stronger than the bone
Baker's cyst
localized fluid accumulation in the posterior fossa of the knee (popliteal cyst)
Bankart lesion
bony on soft tissue avulsion associated with anterior shoulder instability
Bankart procedure
eponym for anterior capsular repair of IGHL for anterior shoulder instability. Axillary nerve at risk.
Bone callus
immature healing bone
B. P. T. B.
bone patellar tendon bone - tissue used as reconstruction by ACL
Bristow procedure
eponym using conjoined tendon transfer (reconstruction) for anterior shoulder instability. Musculocutaneous nerve at risk.
Bursa
a protective synovial sac serving as a cushion for prominences throughout the body. E. g., prepatellar bursa or subacromial bursae
Carcinoma
cancer of epithelia origin. E. g., adenocarcinoma
Cellulitis
diffuse and especially subcutaneous inflammatioin of connective tissue
Chondromalacia
soft cartilage; a condition without reference to etiology
Chondroplasty
repair cartilage
Chronic
marked by long duration, by frequent recurrence over a long time, and often by slowly progressing seriousness. NOT acute.
Closed fracture
bone is broken, skin is intact
Comminuted fracture
bone broken into more than 2 fragments
Compound fracture
bone broken, skin open
Contusion
bruise
Diaphysis
shaft or middle part of a cylindrical bone
Discord meniscus
congenital variation of the normal semilunar cushion cartilage, in which the meniscus is a disc-like shape
Dislocation
complete displacement of one or more bones at a joint
"-ectomy"
to cut out. E. g., menisectomy, synovectomy
Edema
fluid "loose" in the tissue which has escaped from the vascular or lymphatic spaces causing local or generalized swelling
Epiphysis
the end of a growing bone
Etiology
the cause of a pathologic process
Fracture
any break in the continuity of a bone
Fibrocartilage
normally found in the nose and ear; "scar" repair cartilage in the joint
Greenstick fracture
incomplete fracture that passes only partially through the shaft of a bone in a child; a bone fracture in a young individual in which the bone is partially broken and partially bent.
Growth plates
sites where bones grow longer and wider and are weaker than ligaments in a growing athlete
Hernia
protrusion of a loop of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening
Heterotopic bone (...heterotropic??)
the formation of a new bone in an abnormal location, often as a result of trauma or surgery
Hill-Sachs Lesion
posterior humeral head compression fracture associated with anterior shoulder instability
HAGL
humeral avulsion of glenoid ligament
Iatrogenic
induced artificially by medical treatment
Idiopathic
arising from unknown cause
Instability
symptomatic joint ROM; pathological
"-itis"
suffix added to indicate inflammation

pain - "dolor"
heat - "calor"
redness - "rubor"
swelling - "tumor"

E. g., tendonitis, bursitis, synovitis
Jones fracture
5th metatarsal fracture of the diaphysis, often requiring surgical treatment
Joint replacement
a resurfacing of the articular surface
Laxity
the amount of ROM in a joint; non-pathological
Ligament
a collagenous structure that attaches bone to bone; when injured, often associated with a pop, pain, and swelling
Mal-union
improper bone healing
Metaphysis
a portion of a long bone in the wide portion of an extremity that in children contains the growth plates
Monteggia fracture
a fracture in the proximal part of the ulna with dislocation of the head of the radius
Mumford
an eponym for distal clavical excision
Neutraceuticals
natural substances to help chondrocytes form and heal joing surfaces, e.g., glucosamine, condroitin sulfate
Non-union
bone failing to heal
"-osis"
a condition of; implies no inflammation. E. g., arthrosis
Osteoclasis
a gradual stretching of bone after it has been fractured
Osteomyelitis
bone infection
Osteopenia
x-ray characteristics of reduced bone density
Osteoporosis
a pathological diagnosis of reduced bone quality
Osteotomy
the internal shifting of bone by breaking the bone; a surgical operation in which a bone is divided or a piece of bone is excised (as to correct a deformity)
"-otomy"
to surgically break a bone, e. g., osteotomy
"-plasty"
to form
Resect
to remove, e. g., meniscus, distal clavical
Repair
to reattach; implies nutrition source and most times blood supply

(exception: cartilage)

E. g., Bankart repair for shoulder ligaments
Reconstruct
to replace a structure with something else. E. g., BPTB for ACL
Sarcoma
cancer of connective tissue origin. E. g., osteosarcoma; lymphoma
Septic
infectious
Sprain
injury to a ligament
Strain
injury to muscle or tendon. E. g., hamstring or quad tendon
Stress fracture
bone discontinuity from overuse as a result of inadequate healing between insults
Subluxation
partial dislocation (as of one of the bones in a joint)
Synovium
(aka Synovial membrane)
the dense connective tissue membrane that secretes synovial fluid and that lines the ligamentous surfaces of articular capsules, tendon sheathes where free movement is necessary, and bursae
Tendon
a collagenous structure which attaches muscle to bone
Viscosupplementation
injection of material into joint to supplement viscous properties of synovial fluid; used for treatment of osteoarthritis. Example: Synvisc