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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bone cell
osteocyte
build up bone
osteoblast
break down calcium and phosphorous
osteoclast
endocrine gland that stabilizes calcium in body
parathyroid
make up of bone matrix
calcium salts and collagen
key to strong bones and teeth
exercise, vitamin D, hormones, heredity
bone is always in constant state of ____ & _____.
formation and reabsorption
what do muscles interact with to contract and extend?
nerves, minerals, and other connective tissue
Contains nutrients and arteries; influenced ability of bone to heal.
Periosteum
Describe 3 traits of muscles
Short & long, vary in diameter, actions depend on location of specific bone.
Holds bones together (bone to bone), provides stability to a joint
Ligaments
Hold muscle to bone, tough long stands of fibers that form ends of muscles; they transmit forces to bone or cartilage without being damaged.
Tendons
Layers of elastic, resiliant tissue found at ends of bone; forms cap over bone to protect during weight bearing activities and provides smooth gliding surfaces.
Cartilage
Cartilage contains no nurves, lymph, or blood supply, but is very high in ___________
Water
Lack of blood supply and water in cartilage causes ???
DJD = Degenerative Joint Disease
Describe DJD
Causes rubbing of bone on bone
Overproduction of synovial fluid behind the knee
Baker's Cyst
Articulations where bones are joined together; classified by degree of movement and material between them.
Joints
Immovable joints connected by fibrous material (ex. skull).
Synarthrotic Joints
Slightly moveable joint joined by cartilage (ex. Symphysis pubis)
Amphiarthrotic Joints
Freely moveable joints containing synovial fluid (ex. knee)
Diarthrotic Joints
Material makeup of synarthrotic joints
Fibrous
Material makeup of amphiarthrotic joints
Cartilagenous
Material makeup of diarthrotic joints
Synovial
List types of joints (7)
Ball & socket (hip), Hinge (elbow), saddle (thumb), pivot, gliding, elipsoid, condyloid.
Name the two types of bones
Cancellous & cortical
Soft spongy bone located in illiac crest, tibia, sternum, and ends of long bone; contains red marrow
Cancellous bone
Hard, forms outer shell; main supporting structure for tissue and bone
Cortical
List the shapes of bone (6)
Long, short, flat, sesamoid, round, and irregular
List example of sesamoid bone
Carpals & tarsals
List examples of round bone
Patella, metatarsals, and ball of foot
List examles of irregualar bone
Skull & vertebral collumn
List examples of flat bone
Scapula, sternum, and pelvic girdle
List attributes of trabeculae
Located in cancellous bone, important for bearing weight, provides strenth to prevent stress
Found in cortical bone, thousands of microscopic units, units are matrix cells, canals, and conduits that allow flow and facilitate calcium absorption
Haversian system
ROM
Range of Motion
ROM is an example of what ???
Articular movement
Diagnostic procedures in orthropedics
Ex-rays, CTs, MRIs, Arthroscopy, and scope
Talipes equinovarus
Club foot
Coccavera
Dislocated hip in infants
Tearing of tendon or ligament at point of insertion
Avulsion
List malignancies of bone
Osteoma, Osteochondroma, Osteosarcoma
Ligaments and tendons constrict and cannot move
Contractures
Example of contracture
Trigger finger
Breaks down and gets smaller
Atrophies
Overstretched muscle
Strain
Tendon or ligament pulled from insertion sight
Sprain
3 Most common complications in orthropedic surgery
Immobilization, Osteomyelitis, Constant chronic pain
Types of bone / tissue graft
Autologous, tibia, illiac crest, cadaver bone
Instruments used for fixation
Screws, pins, plates, nails, prosthetics
How many cranial bones
8
Number of facial bones
13
Number of bones in vertebral collumn
26
How many cervical bones
7
How many thoracic
12
How many lumbar
5
How many pair of ribs
12
Smooth layer of cartilage covering bone ends and providing smooth gliding surface where they meet
Articular hyaline cartilage
Pockets of fatty tissue that buffer the joint
Fat pads
Lining of joint capsule. Lubricates joint by secreting synovial fluid, which acts as a shock absorber
Synovial membrane & fluid
Point of contact or connection between bones
Articulation
List pathology that leads to orthropedic surgery
Congenital, aquired disease, strain, damaged or dislocated joints, fracture, fragmentation
Generally a benign tumor that normally appears in the spur of the long bone
Osteochondroma
Benign tumor of bone
Osteoma
Tumor composed of fibrous or fully developed connective tissue
Fibroma
Malignant tumor of the bone
Osteosarcoma
Cancer in the bone marrow plasma cells
Myeloma
Tumors in the hyaline cartilage, most often malignant
Chondrosarcoma
Connects degenerative contracture and atrophy of a muscle resulting from long continued interference with normal circulation
Volkmann's contracture
Break in the bone; loss of continuity of bone
Fracture
Torn support structures such as ligaments and tendons or misalignment of the bone at the joint
Damaged or dislocated joints
Fracture where bone fragments do not protrude through adjacent tissue to puncture skin, though the bone may or may not be displaced
Closed / simple fracture
Bone fragments protrude through adjacent tissues and skin, creating a grave danger of infection, not only to tissue, but to the bone itself
Open / compound fracture
Fracture continues all the way through bone, versus one that extends through part of the bone
Complete or incomplete fracture
Bone is broken in several different places
Multiple fracture
Crushing or shattering of bone that dispurses bone throughout injured area
Fragmentation
Type of fracture viewed as medical emergency due to increased risk of infection
Open fracture
Bone is crushed
Compression
Bone splinters or breaks into more that two pieces, resulting in multiple intersecting breaks and bone fragments
Comminuted
Bone is forced inward; generally on ingress to skull
Depressed
Bone partially bent or broken; commonly found in children whose bones have not completely calcified
Greenstick
Portion of bone tramatically driven into another bone fragment or adjacent bone and relatively fixed in that position
Impacted
Fracture line runs along length of bone
Longitudinal (linear)
Fracture line lies at an angle to the long axis of the bone
Oblique
Fracture line forms a spiral pattern around the bone
Spiral
Fracture line lies perpendicular to the long axis of the bone
Transverse
List stages of osteogenesis
Hemorrhage, granulation, bony callus formation, consolidation and remodeling
Bone growth can be stimulated by ???
Minute electrical impulses
Occurs when fracture is healing but not completely united as expected within usual timeframe
Delayed union of bone
Occurs with fracture healing, but bone is not in proper alignment
Mal-union of bone
Fracture shows no evidence of healing. Usually requires more drastic procedures including bone graft with fusion
Non-union of bone
CREF
Closed Reduction Via External Fixation
CRIF
Closed Reduction Via Internal Fixation
List two examples of CR procedures
CREF & CRIF
OREF
Open Reduction with External Fixation
ORIF
Open Reduciton with Internal Fixation
Stabilization device that incorporates trunk of body with shoulder and upper extremity
Shoulder spica
Stabilization device that covers trunk area from lower portion of head to hips for fractures to cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae
Minerva jacket
Stabilization device that incorporates trunk of body with both hips and extending down one or both legs
Hip spica
Stabilization device from groin to ankle to immobilize knee and patella
Cylinder cast
Non-encasing devices that can be wrapped in plaster or with bandages to immobilize fractures
Splints
Form of skin traction with weights pulling on the extremity firmly secured with adhesive
Buck's traction
Invovles insertion of a metal pin through the bone with pulleys and weights attached
Skeletal traction
List types of bone grafts
Autogenous graft, cortical graft, cancellous graft, homogenous graft
ESR
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
SAP
Syrum Alkaline Phosphatase
What is SAP
Lab study checking for increased levels of SAP which indicate multiple kinds of bone disease
Aspiration of synovial fluid to check for anomalies
Arthrocentesis
Injection of gas or dye (bitch) for inspection of cartilage or ligaments surrounding the joint
Arthrography
Visual inspection of joints
Arthroscopy
Used to measure bone density
Bone Densitometers
Infection that causes destruction of bone tissue
Osteomye-light us (you dont even smoke us)

Osteomyelitis
Amputation of extremity at the joint
Disarticulation
Suture most often used in bone-to-bone closures
Surgical Steel
Suture used in attaching tendon to bone
Ethibond, Prolene, & Nurolon
Suture used with periosteum
Vicryl
List hemostatic agents in orthropedics
Avitene, Bone wax, Gelfoam, Thrombin
Applied directly to bone surface
Avitene
Sterile Beeswax applied directly to cut bone surface. Assists hemostasis in bone; open only upon request
Bone wax
Moistened in saline, Thrombin or epinephrine in pad form, then applied over areas of capillary bleeding
Gelfoam
Applied as spray or liquid solution for topical application
Thrombin
Cauterization method that is non-heat driven. This causes a low temperature molecular disintegration, resulting in volumetric tissue removal with minimal tissue necrosis of surrounding tissues
Coblation
T/F: Always faced fluoroscope to ensure best protection
True