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70 Cards in this Set

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Condition of pouch like herniation of colon
Colon Inflammation
Examination of the esophagus with an endoscope
Surgical removal of all or part of esophagus and stomach
Incision of part of the heart
Opening in the stomach
Surgical incision of the stomach
Surgical incision in abdomen
Removal of 1/2 of the colon
Opening in the colon
Examination of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum
Inflammation of the small intestine
Surgical incision of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve #10)
Vagotomy ( done to reduce acid secretion in the stomach, the incision is made in the abdomen since the vagus nerve runs to here)
Hole, opening,closure or occlusion
Stomach pain or bad digestion
Difficulty swallowing
Opening of the pyloric sphincter
Opening in the stomach and jejunum
Scope of the sigmoid colon
Surgical incision
Upper GI;
Esophagus, Stomach and small intestine
Lower GI
Large intestine, Rectum and anus
10 inches long, colopalpable mucous membrane, hollow tube connects the pharynx above pharyngoesophageal sphincter connects to the stomach below the cardiac sphincter...
The blood supply to the esophagus is from the...
Inferior thyroid arteries, bronchal arteries, thoracic aorta and branches of left gastric inferior phearin arteries.
What nerve supplies the esophagus?
What is the function of the esophagus?
Propels food to the stomach
Elongated J-pouch. Left upper quadrant beneath the diaaphragm between the esophagus and the duodenum
The blood supply to the stomach is from the ...
left greater arteries, left gasteropiploic, gastric duods(?), short branch of the splenactic artery.
The sympathetic nerve that innervates the stomach is the ...
Vagus nerve
What three parts divide the stomach?
1. Fundus
2. Body
3. Antrum
List the sphincters or the openings of the stomach...
1. Cardiac sphincter which goes from the esophagus to the stomach
2. Pyloric sphincter which attaches the stomach to the small intestine or duodenum
List the functions of the stomach...
1. temporary storage of food
2. mechanically breaks up food
3. Production of gastric lipase, pepsinogen, hydrochloric acid, gastrin and intrinsic factor responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12.
Remember that with Gastric Bypass surgery or the Reu-n-Y procedure the pt has to have shots of vitamin b12 afterwards.
Describe the location of the small intestine...
begins at the Pyloris of the stomach and ends at the ilium. So it goes Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum (DJI)
The blood supplyto the jejunum and ileum comes entirely from the ...
superior mesentery artery
The blood supply to the duodenum is from the _____-and to the jejunum and ileum is from the ________.
1.Celiac branches
2.Superior mesenteric arteries and veins
The ____ nerve innervates the small intestine.
What are the four layers of the bowel wall?
1. Mucosa
2. sub mucosa
3. Muscularis
4. Sersa- visceral peritoneum
What are peyer's Patches?
Looks like tonsils which are found in the wall of the small intestine. captures and destroys bacteria.
What is the primary function of the large intestine, rectum and anus?
1.Primary absorption of water and electrolytes.
2. Forms solid wastes into feces and eliminates waste, alot of good bacteria may cause problems.
The double fold of peritoneum that contains fat and covers the intestines is called.....
Gloves are changed on...
after closing the intestine
The chief function of the large intestine is...
The suture commonly used on the serosal layer of the intestine is...
The ascending colon receives it's blood supply from...
Superior mesenteric artery and Colic artery
A right hemicolectomy is...
removal of 1/2 of the colon
Some indications for a right colon resection might be...
1.Intestinal obstruction
2. Bleeding due to diverticulitis
3. Cancer
4. Injuries
5. Precancerous polyps
name three intestinal instruments...
1.Doyen intestinal forceps
2. Allen intestinal clamp
3. Best colon clamps
4. Dennis intestinal clamp
5. Pace-Potts clamp
The incision for a right colon resection would be...
McBurney's see hint
Done at McBurney's point, this area is most commonly used for an appendectomy
Congenital abnormality of a blockage of the esophagus can be with or without fistula where there is an opening into the trachea.
Esophageal Atresia
Can kill a person. Causes include tears, swallowing foreign objects. May have an endoscopy (view of the esophagus)
Esophageal Trauma
Occurs from swallowing lye, cleaning supplys, scarring hole makes esophagus become smaller.
Chemical burns to the esophagus
Lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter fails to relax whenfood passes from the esophagus to the stomach. Occurs from weight loss, obstructed esophagus, cardiac sphincter spasm.
Occurs when part of the stomach protrudes upwards through the diaphragm, occurs due to a weakening of the surrounding tissues due to smoking or obesity.
Hiatal Hernia
Swallowing problems and pouching bulge in the esophagus. Due to a weak spot in the swallowing muscles. Mostly occurs in older women over 50.
Esophageal diverticulum (Zenkers)
Cancer, exaple the throat. Due to drinking and smoking. Treatment is removal of the esophagas. S/S: bleeding, weight loss, difficulty swallowing. Most common in men.
What are peptic ulcers most commonly caused by?
Bacteria, bleeding, hydrochloric acids
Where do ulcers most commonly occur?
stomach lining, pyloris, duodenum
What are the causes of stomach ulcers?
Stress, smoking, drinking, heredity.
Complications of stomach ulcers...
perofration, obstruction, bleeding
What is the treatment for ulcers?
Diet, antacids, cocktail of antibiotic and antacid.
Silent tumor, asymptomatic (without symptoms), weight loss, dyspepsia(stomach ache), Diagnosis is made through a CT scan of abdomen.
Carcinoma of stomach
What is the treatment for stomach cancer carcinoma?
gastrectomy (removal of the stomach)
What is the most common cancer in the U.S?
Cancer of the small or large intestine
What are some symptoms of large and small intestinal cancer (carcinoma)?
Blood in stool, change in bowel habits such as constipation, bowel obstruction.
How is small or large intestinal cancer diagnosed?
Congenital abnormalit where the intestine and the umbilical cord fail to detach during intrauterine growth resulting in an outpouching of the intestine. Usually doesn't cause problems, unless it causes problem such as diverticulitis and obstuction of the intestine and bleeding.leading to removal of that section of the intestine.
Mekels Diverticulum
Fever, right lower quadrant pain. medical emergency because it may rupture. Treatment includes an appendectomy.
Caused by an outpouching in the intestinal wall anywhere on the GI tract. Inherited.If bleeding occurs, that section is removed. Can occur anywhere on the GI tract.