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77 Cards in this Set

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Arabic for submission (to God)

is a monotheistic religion based upon the Qur'an, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims, believe Allah (God) sent through revelations to Muhammad. Muslims believe Muhammad to have been God's final prophet.

630-1517--The date 630 marks when Muhammad’s call for a new religion was accepted by the Arab leaders of Mecca and surrounding areas. The date 1517 marks the triumph of the Ottoman Turks, who had converted to Islam and the beginning of a new era in Islamic history.

At its largest, the Islamic empire extended over an enormous area that included southern Spain, Sicily, North Africa, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Persia and the Arabian Peninsula. Modern Islam is no longer identifies with a particular country or region or with any one ethnic or racial group.
“one who has been submitted” or accepted the beliefs of Islam.
“the Prophet”, founder of Islam and one of the most commanding figures in history.

Muhammad experienced a spiritual transformation that convinced him that Allah had called him to be his prophet to the Arab people. Other revelations soon followed. Inspired by these encounters, Muhammad slowly gathered a small band of converts. He declared that there was only one God, attacked the polytheistic beliefs of his fellow Arabs. He fled to Yathrib which became known as Medina. Medina and Mecca got in a war. Muhammad return to Mecca after victory

Life 570-632, 610 revelation with Allah, in 622 he fled to Yathrib and marked year 1 for Muslim calendars. 624-628 war between Mecca and Medina. 629 Muhammad’s pilgrimage to Mecca.
Koran/ Qu'ran
is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur'an, in its original Arabic, to be the literal word of God that was revealed to Muhammad over a period of twenty-three years until his death. Muslims regard it as God's final revelation to humankind and view it as the closest thing to a part of God in the world.[2] Muslims also call the Qur'an the "Final Testament", "The Book", "Book of God" or "The Revelation." The Qu'ranic revelations were originally memorised by Muslims as Muhammad spoke them, with some being written down on whatever was at hand, from stones to pieces of bark.
5 pillars
The term given to what are understood among many Muslims to be the five core aspects of Sunni Islam.

The Testimony of Faith (Shahadah) - the declaration that there is none worthy of worship except Allah (Arabic:God) and that Muhammad is His last messenger.

Ritual Prayer (Salat) - establishing of the five daily Prayers.

Obligatory (religious) almsgiving (Zakat) - which is generally 2.5% of the total savings for a rich man working in trade or industry, and 10% or 20% of the annual produce for agriculturists. This money or produce is distributed among the poor.

Fasting (Ramadan)

The Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) - this is done during the month of Zul Hijjah, and is compulsory once in a lifetime for one who has the ability to do it. If the Muslim is in ill health or in debt, he or she is not required to perform Hajj.
The fourth pillar of Islam which is fasting.

It is considered the most venerated, blessed and spiritually-beneficial month of the Islamic year. Prayers, fasting, charity, and self-accountability are especially stressed at this time; religious observances associated with Ramadan are kept throughout the month. God prescribes daily fasting for all able, adult Muslims during the whole month of Ramadan, beginning with the sighting of the new moon.

9th month of the Islamic Calendar. Established in 638 AD.
Is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Mecca is so important because it was the place where the Islamic prophet Muhammed was said to have lived and gained his prophet status.

5th month of the Islamic Calendar
The city is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all able-bodied Muslims who can afford to go, at least once in their lifetime. Muslims regard as the holiest place on Earth. The term 'Mecca' has come into common usage metaphorically to mean any all-important site for any particular group of people, or a main attraction in a certain place or group of people that has a large turnout.
Song of Roland
Narrative based on historical events about the destruction of a troop of Frankish warriors who were led by Count Roland, who was one of Charlemagne’s vassals. Charlemagne in turn set out for revenge for this act of war

Story passed down orally for three hundred years, reached its final written form in about 1100
Chanson De Geste
Old French for Song of brave deeds

Honored the heroic adventures of warriors who had lived in France under Charlemagne and his heirs

Memorialized a minor battle or a defeat

Took Christian values for granted, supernatural and magical elements were commonly used

One is the Song of Roland
Roncevalles; Roncevaux
o The place in where many warriors lost their life in the battle between Saracens and Charlemagne’s army

is a small village and municipality of northern Spain

Roncesvalles is famous in history and legend for the defeat of Charlemagne and the death of Roland in 778, during the battle of Roncevaux Pass, when Charlemagne's rear guard was destroyed by Basque tribes.
The hero in The Song of Roland, one of the twelve peers of France and Charlemagne’s nephew.

He is a brave warrior and fights for France against Saracens

Killed at Roncesvals

Fought to spread christianity and denounce the Muslim religion
Archbishop who fights and dies alongside Roland

When he sees Roland faint he tries to rush to get him water but he falls dead before getting to the water
One of the twelve peers of Charlemagne along with Roland.

Considered wise

Urges Roland to blow his Oliphant, but Roland’s pride discourages him from doing so which angers Oliver.
Was a noble and wealthy Frenchman who was the step-father of Roland

Set out to tell the Saracens about a deal to make with the Franks but instead betrays them and sides with King Marsile for riches
King of the Saracens which was the last Spanish city not conquered by France

Makes a plan with Ganelon to betray Charlemagne and take all of Spain instead of half
Name given to people who resided in France and west Germany

Frankish society was composed of three well-defined ranks, those who fought, those who prayed, and those who worked

Centralizing rule in ROman Gaul under Clovis, who was the first important ruler in the Merovingian dynasty
is the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterised by the vesting of legal and economic power in a lord supported economically from his own direct landholding and from the obligatory contributions of a legally subject part of the peasant population under his jurisdiction. These obligations could be payable in labour (the French term corvée is conventionally applied), produce ("in kind") or rarely money.


in medieval times, the organization of rural economy and society by three classes of manors: demesne, serf or villein holdings, and free peasant land
ruled from 481-511

First ruler of the Merovingian dynasty

Converted to Christiany through the persuasion of his wife

supported misionaries in newly conquered territories, strengthening political ties between Gaul and the pope

were a dynasty of Frankish kings who ruled a frequently fluctuating area, largely corresponding to ancient Gaul, from the fifth to the eighth century. They were sometimes referred to as the "long-haired kings"

Clovis was first ruler in dynasty
Began in 670 with Pepin II

Gained control of the Frankish kingdom after Merovingians

Dynasty named after Charlemagne

End of Carlolingian era began in 843 with the division of Charlemagne's empire
Mayor of the Palace; Majordomo
was an early medieval title and office, also known by the Latin name, maior domus, used most notably in the Frankish kingdoms in the 7th and 8th centuries. It could be compared with a count palatine.

During the 7th century, the office of Mayor of the Palace developed into the true power behind the throne in Austrasia, the northeastern portion of the Kingdom of the Franks under the Merovingian dynasty. The majordomo had the real decision power, while their kings had only a ceremonial function.

The office became hereditary in the family of the Pippinids. After Austrasia and Neustria were reunited in one kingdom, Pippin III — Majordomo since 747 — took the crown of the Merovingians in 751 to establish the line of Carolingian kings. His son Charlemagne assumed even greater power when he was crowned emperor in 800, thus becoming one of the most prominent figures in European history.
Charles Martel
"Charles the Hammer"

Ruled from 714-741

Under his reign, Carolingian troops halted the advance of the Muslims at the Battle of Tours, thereby ensureing the future of Europe as a Christian land

was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace and also proclaimed himself Duke of the Franks
Battle of Tours

was fought near the city of Tours in southern france under the reign of Charles Martel

Carolingian troops halted the advance of the Muslims thereby ensuring the future of Europe as Christian
Pepin the Short
Ruled from 741-768

Son of Martel

declared king of the Franks, with the approval of the Pope and votes from Frankish nobles, later declaired defender of the church

conquered the Lombards, who ruled most of Italy and gave their lands in central Italy to the Pope

The lands were conveyed in one of the most improtant documents called the Donation of Pepin

Alliance redirected churches interests away from the eastern empire and linked Rome's destiny with Western Europe. Also Church's economic foundation was enhanced, and Frankish Kings gained legitimacy and claimed to be the hereditary protectors of Rome
Ruled from 768-814

"Charles the Great"

son of Pepin the Short

established the first rean emire in medieval europe and challenged the Byzantire rulers' claims to the western Roman lands

Most powerful ruler in the early Middle ages

Fought and conquered many lands in Italy, Germany, and Spain to convert them to Christianty

crowned "Charles Augustus, Emperor of Rome" by Pope Leo III
A place where Charlemagne found a palace school at his residence in Aachean, present day west-germany

invited the most learned men of the day to train his own staff and to teach the sons of the nobility.

Leading scholars from many european places settled here where they pursued scholarships
Carolingian Renaissance
Represented Europe's first genuine rebirth of Classical studies within the context of Christian beliefs, roots in educational reform.

period of intellectual and cultural revival occurring in the late 8th and 9th century, with the peak of the activities occurring during to the reigns of the Carolingian rulers Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.

During this period there was an increase of literature, the arts, architecture, jurisprudence, liturgical and scriptural studies. The period also saw the development of Medieval Latin and Carolingian minuscule, providing a common language and writing style that allowed for communication across most of Europe.
Carolingian minuscule
is a script developed as a writing standard in Europe so that the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized by the small literate class from one region to another. It was used in Charlemagne's empire

between approximately 800 and 1200.

Codices, pagan and Christian texts, and educational material were written in Carolingian minuscule throughout the Carolingian Renaissance.

Christian, the term came by extension to refer to a large and important church that has been given special ceremonial rights by the Pope.

Large enclosed rectangular structure that dated back to the second century B.C.
Transept was crossing section that intersected the nave at the aspe end of the building, making a cruciform, which means cross shaped
central area of the basilica
Side aisles
two rows of parallel columns that divided the call into the nave
curved wall at the eastern end
crossing section that intersected the nave at the aspe end of the building, making a cruciform
consisting of two lines or bars, intersecting each other at a 90° angle and dividing one or both of the lines in half.

Crosses can have many symbolic meanings and there exists a host of varieties for emblematic use.
oval shaped area ringed with several small chapels, at the heart of the choir was the aspe,
passageway for walking
Radiating Chaples
A more mature Romanesque style appears in the carvings on the tympanum over the sough portal of the tower porch at Moissa
Bay System
typical of Romanesque architecture, the nave is divided into sections called bays. Each bay is framed by a pair of rounded arches constructed from blocks of pink and grey stones
by 1150 the Gothic style was developing in Paris, and was to become the reigning style of the towns for the remainder of the middle Ages, finally replaced in about 1500
Cathedral that had the finest stained glass from the High Gothic era is from here, has 176 windows

In France
Cathedral; cathedra
Christian church building
same as aspe
Flying buttress
formed a bridge between the upper nave walls and the nearby tall pillars

usually on a religious building, used to transmit the thrust of a vault across an intervening space
denotes an upper story of a Roman basilica or of the nave of a Romanesque or Gothic church, the walls of which rise above the rooflines of the lower aisles and are pierced with windows
Liberal Arts
came to mean studies that are intended to provide general knowledge and intellectual skills, rather than more specialized occupational, scientific, or artistic skills.

In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprised two groups of studies: the trivium and the quadrivium.
In medieval universities, the trivium comprised the three subjects taught first, grammar, logic, and rhetoric. [1] Grammar is the mechanics of a language; logic (or dialectic — logic and dialectic were synonymous at the time) is the "mechanics" of thought and analysis; rhetoric is the use of language to instruct and persuade. (As Latin was both a second language and the international language of scholarship and thought, it had to be learned intentionally and thoroughly.)

These were considered preparatory fields for the quadrivium
St Benedict of Nursia
-Was the founder of western Christian monasticism and the founder of the religious order of the Benedictines.
-"The Rule of St. Benedict in English," contains directions for all aspects of the Monastic life.
-Nursia, Italy
-disgusted with the paganism he saw in Rome while attending school.
Benedictine Rule
-is a book of precepts written for monks living in community under the authority of an abbot. Since about the 7th century it has been adopted with equal success by communities of women. During the 1500 years of its existence, it has become the leading guide in Western Christianity for monastic living in community, both in Catholicism and (since the time of the Reformation) in the Anglican and Protestant traditions.
-is the head and chief governor of a community of monks
Monte Cassino
-is a rocky hill about eighty miles (130 km) south of Rome, Italy, a mile to the west of the town of Cassino (the Roman Casinum having been on the hill) and 520 m (1700 ft) altitude. It is noted as the site where Benedict of Nursia established his first monastery, the source of the Benedictine Order, around 529.
Gregorian Chant
-is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. Gregorian chant developed mainly in the Frankish lands of western and central Europe during the 9th and 10th centuries, with later additions and redactions.
-is a texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony).
-was a monk at the Northumbrian monastery of Saint Peter at Wearmouth, today part of Sunderland, and of its companion monastery, Saint Paul's, in modern Jarrow, Great Britain (see Wearmouth-Jarrow). Bede became known as Venerable Bede soon after his death, but this was not linked to consideration for sainthood by the Roman Catholic Church.
was a Monastic Christian poet from the former Central Saxony (now Lower Saxony). She wrote in Latin, and is considered by some to be the first person since antiquity to compose drama.
-was a Frankish historian and a dedicated servant of Charlemagne.
-Einhard wrote a biography of Charlemagne, the Vita Karoli Magni or Life of Charlemagne (c. 817–830), which provides much direct information about Charlemagne's life and character.
-lived in eastern portion of Frankish territory
-is a long journey or search of great moral significance. Sometimes, it is a journey to a sacred place or shrine of importance to a person's beliefs and faith. Members of every religion participate in pilgrimages. A person who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim.
Santiago de Compostela
-The city's cathedral is the destination of the important medieval pilgrimage route, the Way of St James (in Spanish the Camino de Santiago), which is still walked today.
-At the front of the Baroque facade of the original Romanesque cathedral, a golden mollusc shell adorns the altar. A steady stream of pilgrims still queue there to kiss the shell, as another sign of homage. The cathedral preserves its original barrel-vaulted cruciform Romanesque interior.
-1000 year old tradition.
-The term "Romanesque" attempts to link the architecture of the 11th and 12th centuries in medieval Europe to Roman Architecture, based on similarities of forms and materials. Romanesque is characterized by a use of round or slightly pointed arches, barrel vaults, cruciform piers supporting vaults, and groin vaults.
The Saint Foy abbey-church in Conques was a popular stop for pilgrims on their way to Santiago de Compostela, in what is now Spain. Its construction was begun on the foundations of a smaller earlier basilica, directed by the abbot Odolric (1031-1065) completed around the year 1120. It was built in Romanesque style, using a warm-colored local limestone infilled with a local gray schist. The daringly large dome that covered the crossing later collapsed and was replaced in the 15th century.
-a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by Christians.
-usually sanctioned by the Pope in the name of Christendom,with the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the sacred "Holy Land" from Muslim.
First Crusade 1095-1099/ Conquest of Jerusalem, 1099
-was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the stated goal of capturing the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims. What started as an appeal to the French knightly class quickly turned into a wholesale migration and conquest of territory outside of Europe. Both knights and peasants from many nations of Western Europe, with little central leadership, travelled over land and by sea towards Jerusalem and captured the city in July 1099, establishing the Kingdom of Jerusalem and other Crusader states. Although these gains lasted for fewer than two hundred years, the First Crusade was a major turning point in the expansion of Western power, and was the only crusade to capture Jerusalem.
-refers to a general set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility of Europe during the Middle Ages, revolving around the three key concepts of lords, vassals, and fiefs.

Defining feudalism requires many qualifiers because there is no broadly accepted agreement of what it means. For one to begin to understand feudalism, a working definition is desirable. The definition described in this article is the most senior and classic definition and is still subscribed to by many historians.
-is a male who has power and authority
-the terminology that both preceded and accompanied the feudalism of medieval Europe, is one who enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually of military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain guarantees, which came to include the terrain held as a fief. By analogy it is applied to similar systems in other feudal societies.
Quadrivium: music, astronomy, arithmetic, geometry
-The word is Latin, meaning "the four ways" or "the four roads": the completion of the liberal arts.
-n medieval educational theory, the quadrivium consisted of arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. -- In turn, the quadrivium was considered preparatory work for the serious study of philosophy and theology.
12th-Century Renaissance
-period of many changes during the High Middle Ages. It included social political and economic transformations, and an intellectual revitalization of Europe with strong philosophical and scientific roots. These changes paved the way to later achievements.
Cathedral School
-from the early Middle Ages those schools run by the cathedral clergy, typically having fewer than 100 students. They generally functioned as seminaries to train future priests.
-was an English author, poet, philosopher, bureaucrat (courtier), and a diplomat. He is often referred to as the Father of English Literature. Although he wrote many works he is best remembered for his unfinished frame narrative The Canterbury Tales. He is sometimes credited with being the first author to demonstrate the artistic legitimacy of the vernacular English language, rather than French or Latin.
The General Prologue
is the assumed title of the series of portraits that precedes The Canterbury Tales. It was the work of 14th Century English writer and courtier Geoffrey Chaucer. The conceit of the poem, as set out in the 858 lines of Middle English which make up the general prologue, is that of a religious pilgrimage. Chaucer is in the Tabard Inn, and meets a motley crew of middle class folk from all around England. Coincidentally, they are all on the way to Canterbury, the site of the Shrine of Saint Thomas à Becket. He seeks to describe their 'condition', their 'array', and their social 'degree':
-The pilgrims include: a knight, a squire, a yeoman, a prioress, a second nun, the nun's priest, a monk, a friar, a merchant, a clerk, a sergeant of law, a franklin, a haberdasher, a carpenter, a weaver, a dyer, a tapestry weaver, a cook, a shipman, a doctor of physic, a wife of Bath, a parson, a plowman, a miller, a manciple, a reeve, a summoner, a pardoner, the host and a portrait of Chaucer himself. A canon and his yeoman join the pilgrimage later and tell one tale.
The Monk
Most monks of the Middle Ages lived in monasteries according to the Rule of Saint Benedict, which demanded that they devote their lives to “work and prayer.” This Monk cares little for the Rule; his devotion is to hunting and eating. He is large, loud, and well clad in hunting boots and furs.
-Described as modest and quiet, this Prioress (a nun who is head of her convent) aspires to have exquisite taste. Her table manners are dainty, she knows French (though not the French of the court), she dresses well, and she is charitable and compassionate.
The first pilgrim Chaucer describes in the General Prologue, and the teller of the first tale. The Knight represents the ideal of a medieval Christian man-at-arms. He has participated in no less than fifteen of the great crusades of his era. Brave, experienced, and prudent, the narrator greatly admires him.
The Late Middle Ages
The High Middle Ages