Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/39

Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
?
-Origin:
-Insertion:
-Innervation:
-Blood supply:
-Action:
splenius capitis
-Origin: nuchal ligament, supraspinous ligament, spinous processes of C7-T4
-Insertion: mastoid process and occipital bone
-Innervation: dorsal rami
-Blood supply: dorsal branch of posterior intercostal arteries
-Action:
splenius cervicis
-Origin: spinous processes of T3-T6
-Insertion: transverse processes of C1-C3
-Innervation: dorsal rami
-Blood supply: dorsal branch of posterior intercostal a.
-Action:
Transversospinal muscle group
-semispinalis, multifidus, rotatares
-Origin: transverse processes
-Insertion: spinous processes, except semispinalis, which inserts onto the nuchal line of skull
-Innervation: dorsal rami
-Blood supply: dorsal branch of posterior intercostal a.
-Action: contralateral rotation
Multifidus
-Origin: sacrum, ilium, transverse processes of C4-C7
-Insertion: spinous processes of above vertebra, spanning 2-4 spinal segments
-Innervation: dorsal rami
-Blood supply: dorsal branch of posterior intercostal a.
-Action:
trapezius
-Origin: external occipital protuberance, superior nuchal line, nuchal ligament, spinous processes of C7-T12
-Insertion: spine of scapula, acromion, lateral 1/3 of clavicle
-Innervation:
motor: CN 11 (spinal accessory nerve)
sensory: proprioception via C3-C4 spinal nerves
-Blood supply: superficial branch of transverse cervical a.
-Action: elevates and depresses scapula, adducts/retracts scapula, rotates scapula upward & outward
latissimus dorsi
-Origin: spinous processes of T7-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, ribs 9-12
-Insertion: floor of bicipital/intertubercular groove
-Innervation: thoracodorsal/middle subscapular nerve (C6 mainly,7,8); branches from posterior cord of the brachial plexus
-Blood supply: thoracodorsal a. (a branch of subscapular a.)
-Action: extends, adducts and medially rotates
Levator scapulae
-Origin: transverse processes of C1-C4
-Insertion: medial boarder of scapula, superior to scapular spine
-Innervation: C3-C4 anterior rami and dorsal scapular nerve
-Blood supply: deep branch of transverse cervical a.
-Action: elevates scapula, tilts glenoid fossa inferiorly by rotating scapula, extends neck, laterally flexes neck
rhomboid minor
-origin
-insertion
... rest rhomboid major
-Origin: spinous processes of C7-T1
-Insertion: root of spine of scapula
rhomboid major
-Origin: T2-T5
-Insertion: medial border of scapula
-Innervation: dorsal scapular nerve
-Blood supply: deep branch of transverse cervical a./dorsal scapular a.
-Action: retracts and elevates scapula, (w/help from other muscles rotates lateral aspect inferiorly)
serratus posterior superior
-Origin: lower part of ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7-T3
-Insertion: ribs 2-5
-Innervation: intercostal nerves T2-T5
-Blood Supply:
-Action: elevates ribs (during forced inspiration)
serratus posterior inferior
-Origin: spinous processes of T11-L3
-Insertion: ribs 9-12
-Innervation: intercostal nerves T9-T12
-Blood Supply:
-Action: stabalizes lower ribs against diaphragm contraction
Deltoid
Proximal attachment:
Lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula

Distal attachment:
Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

Innervation
Axillary nerve

Blood Supply:
Deltoid branch of thoracoacromial artery
Posterior humeral circumflex artery

Action:
Abducts, flexes, extends, internal and external rotation
Supraspinatus Muscle
Proximal attachment:
Supraspinous fossa

Distal attachment:
Greater tubercle of humerus

Innervation:
Suprascapular nerve


Blood supply:
Suprascapular artery


Main action:
Initiates abduction of upper limb (*critical for first 15 degrees)
Holds head of humerus in the glenoid cavity during arm elevation (flexion, abduction)
Infraspinatus Muscle
Proximal attachment:
Infraspinous fossa of scapula

Distal attachment:
Middle facet on greater tubercle of humerus

Innervation:
Suprascapular nerve (C5 and C6)


Blood supply:
Suprascapular artery & scapular circumflex artery

Main Actions:
Laterally rotates humerus
Holds head of humerus in glenoid fossa during arm movements
Teres Minor Muscle
Proximal attachment:
Superior part of lateral border of scapula

Distal attachment:
Inferior facet on greater tubercle of humerus

Innervation:
Axillary nerve

Main Actions:
Laterally rotates the humerus

Blood Supply:
Scapular circumflex
Subscapularis Muscle
Proximal attachment:
Subscapular fossa

Distal attachment:
Lesser tubercle of humerus

Innervation:
Upper and lower subscapular nerves (C5, C6 and C7)

Main Actions:
Medially rotates the humerus

Blood Supply:
Subscapular artery
Teres Major Muscle
Proximal attachment:
Posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula

Distal attachment:
Medial lip of intertubercular groove of humerus

Innervation:
Lower subscapular nerve

Blood supply:
Circumflex scapular a.

Main Actions:
Medially rotates the humerus (opposite to teres minor)
Adducts and extends the humerus
Serratus Anterior M:
-NN
-Main actions
-Innervation
Long thoracic nerve (C5, C6 and C7)
Innervated by anterior rami

-Main actions
Protracts the scapula
Holds scapula against body wall
Assists in rotating scapula during abduction of upper limb
Pectoralis Minor Muscle:
Proximal attachment is 3rd-5th ribs near their costal cartilages.
Distal attachment is to the coracoid process of the scapula.
Innervated by the medial pectoral nerve (anterior rami C8 and T1)
Main action is to stabilize the scapula during upper limb movements.
Subclavius Muscle:
Arises from the 1st rib near its costal cartilage.
Attaches to the inferior surface of the middle 3rd of the clavicle.
Innervated by the nerve to the subclavius (mainly C5, and C6)
Nerve comes off superior trunk of the brachial plexus
Main action – to anchor and stabilize the clavicle
Brachialis
Lies deep to the biceps brachii
Origin – Distal half of anterior surface of humerus
Insertion – Coronoid process & ulnar tuberosity
Innervated by the musculocutaneous n., C5 & C6 (and small lateral component-radial n., C7)


Main Actions
Most powerful forearm flexor, all elbow positions.
Isometric contraction allows controlled forearm extension
Gluteus Maximus
Proximal attachment
Ilium posterior to the posterior gluteal line, sacrum, coccyx, and sacrotuberous ligament.

Distal attachment
gluteal tuberosity of the femur and the iliotibial tract

Innervated by the inferior gluteal nerve (L5,mainly S1, mainly S2)

Extends thigh (and assists with lateral rotation
Tensor Fascia Lata
Proximal attachment: anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and anterior part of iliac crest

Distal attachment: iliotibial tract to the lateral condyle of the tibia

Innervated by the superior gluteal nerve (mainly L4,mainly L5,S1)

Abducts and medially rotates the thigh (active along with gluteus medius to stabilize the pelvis during unilateral stance). Helps flex the thigh
Gluteus Medius
Proximal attachment: External surface of the ilium between the anterior and posterior gluteal lines

Distal attachment lateral surface of the greater trochanter of femur

Innervated by the superior gluteal nerve

Abducts thigh, keep pelvis level during unilateral stance phase of gate
Anterior fibers medially rotate thigh
Gluteus Minimus
Proximal attachment: Ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines

Distal attachment: Anterior surface of the greater trochanter of the femur

Innervated by the superior gluteal nerve

Abducts and medially rotates the thigh, helps keep pelvis level during unilateral stance phase of gate
Positive Trendelenburg Gait/Sign:

Hip abductors keep the pelvis level during unilateral stance phase of gait. If one of the ___ muscles is weak (perhaps due to ___ nerve injury) then the pelvis will drop on the ___ side.. This is called a Trendelenburg gait pattern or a gluteus medius gait if observed while the patient is walking.

If the pelvis drops when you ask a patient to raise one foot off the floor during an examination then it is called a positive Trendelenburg sign
-gluteus medius
-superior gluteal
-contralateral
Piriformis
Proximal attachment: anterior surface of the sacrum and sacrotuberous ligament

Distal attachment: superior border of greater trochanter of the femur

Innervated by branches of anterior rami of mainly S1,S2

Laterally rotates thigh, abducts the thigh from the flexed position
Quadratus Femoris
Proximal attachment: lateral border of ischial tuberosity

Distal attachment: Quadrate tubercle on intertrochanteric crest of femur

Innervated by nerve to quadratus femoris (L5,S1)

Laterally rotates thigh and stabilizes femoral head in the acetabulum
Obturator internus
Proximal attachment: obturator internus originates from the obturator membrane, margin of the obturator foramen

Distal attachment: medial aspect of the greater trochanter

Innervated by the nerve to obturator internus

Laterally rotates thigh
Obturator externus
Proximal attachment: external surface of obturator membrane and adjacent bone

Distal attachment: trochanteric fossa

Innervated by the obturator nerve

It is an external rotator of the femur
Hamstrings
-attachments
Proximal attachment is the ischial tuberosity

Distal attachments
Biceps femoris
lateral side of the head of the fibula

Semitendinosus
medial surface of superior part of tibia

Semimembranosus
Posterior part of medial condyle of tibia (Oblique popliteal ligament)
Sartorius
Proximal attachment: Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)

Distal attachment: superior part of medial surface of tibia

Innervated by the femoral nerve

Flexes, abducts, laterally rotates the thigh at the hip joint, and flexes the leg at the knee joint
Adductor Magnus (adductor part)
Proximal attachment: Adductor part - ischiopubic ramus

Distal attachment: posterior surface proximal femur, linea aspera medial supracondylar line

Innervated by the obturator nerve

Adducts thigh, aids medial rotation
Adductor Magnus (hamstring part)
Hamstring part :
Proximal attachment: ischial tuberosity

Distal attachment: adductor tubercle of femur and supracondylar line

Innervated by the tibial division of sciatic n.
Adductor Longus and Brevis
Proximal attachment: pubis

Distal attachment: linea aspera

Innervated by obturator nerve

Adducts thigh
Pectineus
Proximal attachment: pectineal line of pubis

Distal attachment: femur inferior to lesser trochanter to the linea aspera

Innervated by femoral nerve (even though its in the medial compartment)

Adducts and flexes thigh
Gracilis
Proximal attachment: Pubis (body and inferior ramus)

Distal attachment: superior part of medial surface of tibia

Innervated by obturator nerve

Adducts thigh
Flexes leg and helps rotate leg medially at the knee joint
Obturator externus
Proximal attachment: external surface of obturator membrane and adjacent bone

Distal attachment: trochanteric fossa

Innervated by the obturator nerve

It is an external rotator of the femur