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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what raises or lowers the testes
cromaster muscle

raises and lowers testees acording to temperature
are sperm mobile by the time they reach the vas/ductus deferens
no, this is due to inhibitory factors that keep the sperm dormant even if they'd matured to prevent them from using energy
how does sperm travel
seminiferous tubule
once sperm is formed in the seminiferous tubule it empties into the rete testis

> rete testis
rete testis is a collecting net for the sperm but the sperm is not 100% mature when they leave here

> epididymis
some maturation and storage of sperm occurs here

> vas/ductus deferens > seminal vescicle > prostate
what does LH do in men
LH enters testees and works on Leydig cells (interstitial cells)

leydig cells secrete testoterone
what does FSH do in men
FSH enters testees and binds to seminiferous tubules

seminiferous tubules then act on the SERTOLI CELLS (sustenticular cells)

sertoli cells stimulate
what does FSH stimulate in women
production of egg (maturation of follicle)
what does FSH stimulate in men
FSH acts on seminiferous tubules leading to the production of sperm (FSH matures sperm)
what does LH stimulate in women
LH binds to LH Rc on C luteum and estrogen and progesteron are made
what does LH stimulate in men
LH binds to leydeg cells and testosterone is produced
what suppresses the production of gonadotropes

estrogen (follicular phase in women)
progesterone (suppresses LH)
what does androgen binding protein do
takes testosterone produced by the leydeg cells and transport it to the sertoli cels
in men other than inhibin what does feedback inhibition on the hypothalamus
ESTROGEN (testosterone that is produced in the testees travels to the hypothalamus and is converted via aromatase to estrogen and estrogen inhibits the hypothalamus)
what are the general functions of testosterone in males
CNS effects
stimulation of muscle/bone growth
(muscle growth due to increase in protein synthesis in all organs)
maintanence of 2ndary sex characteristics
what does testosterone do in males
growth of male genitalia (PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTIC)

secondary sex characteristics
when does the growth of male genitalia occur
in utero and right and then at puberty
what are the secondary characteristics seen in males and what cause them to form
formed due to testosterone

increase body hair
muscle/bone growth
pelvis bone changes
what causes the change in a mans voice
hypertrophy of the larynx and laryngeal mucosa
what happens to a mans skin due to testosterone
thickens, and due to increase in oil production acne occurs

what occurs in male pattern baldness
receeding hair line (IF YOU HAVE A GENETIC DISPOSITION) THIS OCCURS IN RESPONSE TO ANDROGENS (testosterone decreases growth of hair)
what is the purpose of the sertoli cells
provide nutrients to developing spermatogoniuam/spermatids
what are the premordial sperm cells
spermatognia/nium (THEY ARE NOT SPERM YET)
how is sperm produced
spermatognium (46) > mitosis 1 > PRIMARY spermacyte (46) (1 total) > meiosis 1 > 2ndary spermacyte (46) (2 total) > meiosis 2 > spermatid/spermatozoa (23) (4 total)
of the four spermatids/spermatozoa produced what are the sexes
2 male
2 female
where do spermatids mature
seminiferous tubule
what becomes the acrosome of the sperm

acrosome contains proteolytic enzymes which help in fertilization
what is the flagella made of
it is made of microtubules and is surrounded by mitochondria b/c ATP is needed to move the microtubules
what does the seminial vesicle do
provides nutrients and viscosity to the semen
what are the nutrients that the seminal vesicle provides
fructose, prostaglandins, fibrinogen, citric acid

what does fructose do
provides energy
what does prostaglandins do
stimulate fallopian tubes to contract and help carry egg and sperm along
what does fibrinogen do
causes clot formation in semen to help the sperm stay in that area
what does citric acid do
buffer function and source of energy
what is the pH of vagina
acidic and this gives low motility to sperm
what does the prostate do
alkalize sperm (so they can deal w/ the acidic environment of vagina)

Ca and phosphorous will be in the seminal fluid.

PROFIBRINOLYSIN will also be in the seminal fluid and is used to break up the clot formed by the seminal vesicle so the sperm can keep moving
how does benine prostetic hypertrophy occur
due to capsule surrounding the prostate not growing anymore eventhough the prostate is
what kind of receptor do sertoli cells have
what enzyme is in sertoli cells