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166 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the liver?
A multi-lobed organ, that performs chemical reactions and produces bile
Purpose of bile
to emulsify fats
define emulsify
to break a glob of fat into smaller droplets
prefix meaning relating to liver
liver inflammation
Vessel carrying absorbed nutrients from small intestine to liver for processing
hepatic portal vein
tube that exits liver carrying bile
hepatic duct
last substances to leave stomach
purpose of gall bladdar
to store bile
where can one find the gall bladdar
under the first lobe of liver
vessel leading to the gall bladder
cystic duct
passageway formed when cystic duct and hepatic duct combine
common bile duct
color of bile
How are gall stones formed?
a pH change in the bile leads to it being crystallized out
where common bile duct empties
duodenum of small intestine
sphincter of common bile duct
sphincter of oddi
sphincter responsible for filling of gall bladder with bile
sphincter of oddi
purpose of pancreas
to produce critical digestive enzymes
produces insulin
Isles of Langerhans
What happens when lipids enter the duodenum?
It sends a message to the sphincter of oddi to open and for the gall bladder to contract to release bile to emulsify the lipids
pH of duodenum
8 to 10
pH of stomach
1 to 2
organ at caudal end of esophagus
what macromolecule begins chemical digestion in the stomach
Purpose of stomach
to mechanically break down food, to chemically break down protein, and to kill bacteria
ridges on inside of stomach
gastric rugae
soupy mixture that leaves stomach
maximum volume of average stomach
1 liter
sphincter at end of stomach
pyloric valve
Fetal caca
color of meconium
Name 3 parts of small intestine (in order!)
1. Duodenum
2. Jejunum
3. Ileum
length of duodenum in humans
10 inches
length of jejunum in humans
8 feet
length of ileum in humans
12 feet
Where MOST chemical digestion begins
what mixes in duodenum? and from where does each come?
Chyme (from stomach), Bile (from liver & gall bladder), Digestive enzymes (from pancreas)
part of small intestine line with villi
where most of food's nutrition is absorbed
name of sphincter at end of ileum
ileocecal valve
name of sphincter at beginning of caecum
ileocecal valve
name the 2 striated skeletal sphincters of digestive system
orbicularis oris and anus
purpose of large intestine (colon)
to reclaim water from chyme
first part of large intestine
thing hanging off caecum
vermiform appendix
translate from latin: vermis
purpose of vermiform appendix
What causes appendicitis? How is it so deadly?
The vermiform appendix becomes infected and closes off from the caecum. It can then rupture, so its contained bacteria goes into the peritoneum which is deadly.
purpose of caecum in herbivores
site of intense bacterial digestion of cellulose (a major component of an herbivores diet)
Name ALL parts of large Intestine in the human (in Order!)
1. Caecum
2. Ascending Colon
3. Transverse Colon
4. Descending Colon
5. Sigmoid Colon
6. Rectum
where mass-peristalsis starts
transverse colon
What is mass peristalsis?
to rush food that is slowly making it though digestive system, out faster
nerves that sense pressure
What shape of the sigmoid colon?
Why is rectum named so?
Rectus means straight. The Rectum is the straight part of colon.
Final sphincter of digestive system
passageway through pancreas (2 names)
pancreatic duct - duct of Wirsung
hole in wall of duodenum where the bile and digestive enzymes are released
ampulla of vater
purpose of spleen
to control lymphatic system and store back-up blood
amount of blood the spleen stores
1 cup (8 fl. oz.)
replaces the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon in pigs
spiral colon
purpose of lymphatic system
to collect blood plasma leaked from capillaries, and to screen this fluid for foreign glycoproteins
Name some body zones with large lymph nodes
neck, armpit, shoulders, groin
where does the lymphatic system return the reclaimed flids
the vena cava
location of kidneys (1 adjective)
purpose of kidneys
to filter the waste products out of blood, producing urine
structures directly cranial to kidneys
adrenal galnds
medial inward portion of kidney, that serves an entrance/exit
renal hilus
ventral blood vessel to kidney
renal vein
dorsal blood vessel to kidney
renal artery
passageway from kidneys to urinary bladder
pouch the holds urine
urinary bladder
average female urinary bladder maximum volume
500 - 600 mL
average male urinary bladder maximum volume
1000 mL
average human urinary bladder maximum volume
700 - 800 mL
tube from urinary bladder to outside of body
Describe the 2 sphincters of the urethra:
1 involuntary (smooth) - internal

1 voluntary (straited skeletal) - external
What, inside of the urinary bladder, allows it to distend?
rugae (ridges)
What surrounds the kidneys? What is its purpose?
An adipose capsule surrounds the kidneys to insulate it and protect it.
What activates the pepsin enzyme in the stomach? What does this enzyme do?
HCl activates pepsin which chemically breaks down protein into smaller peptides.
purpose of heart
to pump blood to lungs and throughout body
upper heart chambers
lower heart chambers
heart chambers blood enters
atria (right/left)
heart chambers blood exits
ventricles (right/left)
Path of Blood (from capillaries to capillaries)
capillaries -> venule -> vein -> vena cava -> right atrium -> right ventricle -> pulmonary artery -> lungs -> pulmonary vein -> left atrium -> left ventricle -> aorta -> arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries
heart sac
pericardium (aka pericardial sac)
purpose of pericardium
to secrete fluids to reduce friction and take heart away
Major vein from head
superior vena cava
major vein from abdomen
inferior vena cava
primary artery to lower body
descending aorta
blood vessel that has the thickest walls and under the greatest pressure
where heart attacks occur (and where heart bypasses occur)
coronary arteries and veins
purpose of coronary arteries and veins
to service the cells of the heart muscle itself - providing food and O2, and removing CO2 and waste
what side of heart do the coronary blood vessels run?
ventral side of heart (in humans)
inner eyelid of pig
Nictitating membrane
what corner of the eye is the nictitating membrane
medial corner
purpose of nictitating membrane
to protect eyes from dirt and debris
gland on ventral surface of heart (also scattered throughout neck)
Point in lifetime in which thymus reaches max size
purpose of thymus
to teach White Blood Cells (T lymphocytes) the difference between one's cells and intruders
position of thyroid gland (humans v. pigs)
Humans: Lateral sides of larynx
Pigs: cranial end of trachea
purpose of thyroid gland
to produce thyroxine to regulates one's metabolic rate
Explain HYPOthyroidism
Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroxine. It may be caused by Iodine deficiency. Patients appear sluggish, tired, irritable, and have gained weight. As a result, the body tells the thyroid gland to enlarge, forming a goiter. Radioactive I-131 can be used to destroy the goiter.
Explain HYPERthyroidism
Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much thyroxine. Symptoms include over activity, weight loss, increased appetite, and loss of sleep. Treatment include drugs that slow the production of thyroxine.
Space between gum and cheeks
purpose of tongue
to aid mechanical digestion, form food into a bolus, and push it down the esopahgus
tongue muscles attached to hyoid bone
extrinsic tongue muscles
tongue muscles that change its shape
intrinsic tongue muscles
Muscular type of esphagus
Smooth - except top 2 inches are straited skeletal
flap under tongue attaching it to floor of mouth
Lingual Frenulum
Condition due to a short lingual frenulum
flap that attaches upper lips to the upper jaw
labial frenulum
define: pharynx
space in back of nose
space in back of mouth
space in throat
define: rugae
ridges of hard palate
palatal rugae
purpose of palatal rugae
to aid in mechanical digestion for animals without extensive jaw rotation - tongue crushes and smears food against it to break it down
Curly bones in nose lined with mucous covered epithelial tissue
purpose of turbinates
to warm, moisten, and filter air entering the nose
purpose of soft palate
to close off nasal cavity when swallowing to prevent food and drink from entering it
Where is the soft palate?
Posterior to the hard palate
Purpose of epiglottis
to cover the larynx when swallowing to prevent food and drink from entering the trachea and lungs
define: bolus
hunk of food ready to swallow
define: mastication
voice box
Where is larynx?
It is the enlarge cranial end of the trachea.
Body's Mechanism to prevent food and drink from entering trachea and larynx when swallowing
bring epiglottis down and bring larynx up
Tube that leads to lungs
Shape/Position of cartilage rings that surround trachea
C-Shaped Rings (C to the front, so it's open in the back for esophagus)
Path of air through respiratory system (from outermost to innermost)
Mouth (Nose) -> Oropharynx (Nasopharynx) -> laryngopharynx -> larynx -> trachea -> bronchi -> bronchioles -> alveoli
purpose of lungs
to exchange gaseous O2 with dissolved CO2 in blood
Terminal air sacs of lungs
2 layer thick fluid-filled sac that surrounds lungs
lung sac that is attached to lungs
visceral pleura
lung sac that is attached to the chest wall
parietal pleura
purpose of pleura
When the chest expands, it pulls against the parietal pleura, which pulls along visceral pleura, which pulls on the lungs causing then to expand, and draw air in
type of tissue pleura and peritonieum are
purpose of esophagus
to deliver food from mouth to stomach
where is the esophagus found
dorsal to the trachea and through the diaphragm
sphincter at bottom of esophagus
lower esophageal sphincter (aka cardiac sphincter)
sphincter at top of the stomach
lower esophageal sphincter (aka cardiac sphincter)
wave-like muscular contraction that propels food through GI tract
explain heart burn
when gastric juices pass through lower esophageal sphincter into esophagus causing a burning sensataion
GERD is an acronym for:
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
treatment for GERD
take a prescription drug (such as Nexium) to stop production of HCl in the stomach
Purpose of HCl in Stomach
To kill bacteria in stomach and to activate pepsin
Name some undesired side effects of drugs like Nexium that stop the production of HCl
- Increase in Number of Cells that produce HCl,
- More food poisoning because no HCl to kill bacteria
- Dependancy
Complications associated with GERD
- Stomach Cancer
- Aspirating due to Stomach contents coming up esophagus and entering trachea
- Death (due to above)
One cell thick layer that covers abdomen
purpose of peritoneum
to hold organs in place and to secrete fluid to keep insides moist
fluid excreted by peritoneum
interstitial fluid
Where allantoic duct leads to outside umbilical cord in womb
to mother's liver
Blood vessel in which only one is present in umbilical cord
umbilical vein
Blood vessel in which two are present in umbilical cord
umbilical arteries
Where umbilical veins lead to
leads to liver
what umbilical vein turns into after birth and its purpose
turns into Falciform ligament to hold liver down and hold liver's lobes in place
what umbilical arteries turn into after birth and their purpose
Turn into Suspensory ligaments to suspend urinary bladder
Large flat muscle that separates thorax from abdomen
Primary Breathing Muscle
What are hiccups?
spasms of diaphragm
3 tubes that pass through diapragm
- descending aorta
- inferior vena cava
- esophagus
Movement of Diaphragm when it contracts
How diaphragm aids breathing
it flattens, increasing the volume of the chest cavity, so the lung's air pressure decreases so air is drawn in