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37 Cards in this Set

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Organs in Neck & Thorax
Heart, lungs, thymus, anterior vena cava, aorta, esophagus
Heart
4 chambers; dark-colored atria hold pacemaker; parietal pericardium destroyed as removing sternum; cardiovascular sys.
Lungs
light pink, shriveled; deflated as air entered thoracic cavity; CO2 leaves; O taken in; respiratory sys.
Thymus
pale mass anterior and ventral to heart, between lungs; creates T-cells; lymphatic/immune sys.
Anterior Vena Cava
thin walled, dark vessel; humans: aka superior vena cava; drains blood frm head & superior (rat-anterior) extremities back 2 <3 & enters <3 @ right atrium; cardiovascular sys.
Aorta
thick-walled, blue-white tube arising frm top of <3, arches to left & descends dorsal to <3 alongside thorax; major distributive blood vessel; cardio sys.
Esophagus (oesophagus by traditionalists)
dorsal & parallel to trachea; tube carrying food to stomach.
Organs of the Abdominal Cavity
Peritoneum, Diaphram, Small Intestine, Liver, Stomach, Gall Bladder, Spleen, Pancreas, Cecum, Large Intestine, Kidney, Ureter, Urinary Bladder, Urethra, Aorta, Posterior Vena Cava
Peritoneum
Shiny slippery serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and all its organs.
Diaphragm
A dome-shaped muscle separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
Small Intestine
Joined together by thin membrane -mesentary proper/mesenteron
Mesentary Proper/Mesenteron
2 layers of peritoneum w/ blood vessels & nerves inbtwn supplying O, hormones, etc & carry nutrients absorbed frm intestine 2 body; lifts off @dorsal body wall where it connects w/ parietal peritoneum;
Liver
Largest visceral organ in body; posterior to diaphram; many f(x) linked w/ metabolism; digestive sys mostly?
Stomach
Anterior end of small intestine; lies on left of abdominal cavity; temporary storage organ for ingested food; dig sys.
Gall Bladder
Not in rats- dont need bile storage; humans- dorsal surface of right lobe of liver; stores bile (emulsifies eaten fat);
Pancreas
human- discreat w/ sharp well-defined borders behind peritoneum (retroperitoneal) btween duodenum & stomach; produces enzymes 4 digestion & 2 hormones to regulate blood sug. lvls; scrambled eggs;
Spleen
EGGPLANT look-alike!; far left; resembles narrow, thick bay leaf in humans, resembles liver; filters blood and brks down old erythrocytes; lymphatic sys.
Cecum
junction of small & large intestines; thin-walled pouch; harbors bacteria - assist in brkdwn of ingested cellulose; large in rats, smaller in humans;
Cecum
After appendix; be4 ascending colon. Connects ileum to ascending colon (via ileocecal valve), tho vry small connection - philophrs named it "caecum"/blind; digestive sys.
Large Intestine
usually has oblong fecal pellets present in lumen; ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, rectum; absorbs water, vitamins, and stores feces until expelled;
Kidneys
dark red, bean shaped, lie against dorsal body wall covered by parietal peritoneum; regulates fluid and electrolyte balance of body; urinary sys.
Ureter
Tubes that drain urine from kidneys to urinary bladder; fine white threads; urinary sys.
Urinary Bladder
sac-like structure in pubic region; white mushroom shape..; urinary sys.
Urethra
Passage from urinary bladder to outside. Prob wont see this.
Aorta
Left of midline; Like other arteries in body, carries blood away from heart; cardiovascular system.
Posterior Vena Cava
humans- aka inferior vena cava; drains blood frm most organs in posterior (inferior) part of body; runs ventral 2 aorta; dark color; carries blood to <3
Uterus
rat- looks like "Y"; stem-body characterized by thickened ring of cervix; arms- uterine horms (where embroyos develop; human- midline muscular organ w/ pear size/shape; rep sys.
Vagina
connects with uterus; terminates just below the muscular uterine cervix; birth canal;
Oviducts
oviduct at the anterior end of each uterine horn; fine white thread-like twisted coil; human- oviduct=fallopian tube= uterine tube & connects w/ single midline uterus; fertilization site;
Ovaries
rat- tiny, lumpy, dark red, closely associated w/ oviducts; produce eggs & sex hormones: estrogen & progesterone;
Scrotum
sac lying at base of tail containing testes; can be retracted through inguinal canal.
Penis
seen on ventral surface, covered by prepuce; right-angle bend along length; contains urethra; resp & dig sys.
Testes
Produce sperm & sex hormone: testosterone; large white structures; wave-like vessels across surface; temp regulation; reprod sys.
Epididymis
alongside testes, large dumb-bell shape; mass of tubules through thin outer covering-store sperm; ductus deferens arises from posterior pole.
Ductus Deferens
tube conveys sperm during ejaculation from epididymis tourethra for delivery 2 female reproductive tract;
Seminal Vesicle
large, paired, pale-colored shaped structure lies attached to where ductus deferens joins urethra; produces substantial portion of seminal ejaculate; reproductive sys.
Prostate
Round, somewhat translucent; lies base of urinary bladder; provides some seminal ejaculate;