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9 Cards in this Set

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What are the two classes of cholinergic pesticides?
1)organophosphates = irreversible inhibition of AChesterase
2)carbamates = reversible inhition of AChesterase
What are the possible routes of exposure for the organophosphates?
1)skin
2)lungs
3)oral
Muscarinic effects
1)SLUDGE
2)bronhospasm
3)bradycardia
4)miosis
Nicotinic effects
1)increase ACh at motor endplates resulting in persistant depolarization of skeletal muscles
2)fasciculations -> paralysis (respiratory failure from fatigue respiratory muscles)
CNS effects
1)initial stimulation (SZRs) -> Coma
2)ACh is excitatory and also antagonizes DA and GABA
What two laboratory tests are useful in determining degree of toxicity to the organophosphates?
1)PSEUDOCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY
-less sensitive for predicting toxicity
-easier to obtain
2)RBC CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY
-most closely resembles CNS levels
-takes longer to decrease and to return to normal level
When is atropine indicated in organophosphate exposure?
1)For muscarinic and CNS symptoms
2)large amounts needed for 24-48hours
3)Does NOT correct weakness or muscle fasciculations
When is Pralidoxime indicated in organosphosphate exposure?
1)corrects mostly nicotinic symptoms but may help with some muscarinic too
2)acts synergistically with atropine by reactivating the AChesterase enzyme
Why are organophosphates sometimes used by cocaine abusers?
1)organophosphates inhibit AChesterase which is the enzyme that breakdowns cocaine -> prolongs action of cocaine