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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Structural dimension / Specialization
Degree organization tasks subdivided into separate jobs = same as division of labor
learning organization
promotes communication and collaboration so that everyone is engaged in identifying and solving problems; based on equality, open information,little hierarchy and a culture that encourages adaptability and participation. Essential value is problem-solving vice efficient performance
open system
(1)must interact with environment to survive (2)must continually change (3)mgr must recognize busiess is part of complex, interconnected whole
Importance of Organizations
(1) bring together resources to achieve goals (2)produce goods and svcs efficiently (3)facilitate innovation (4) use modern manufacturing and computer based tech (5)adapt and influence changing enviroment (6)create value for owners,customers, employees (7) accommodate challenges of diversity, ethics, motiviation & coord of employees
Scientific Management
Frederick Winslow Taylor = decisions about organizations and job designs should be based on precise, scientific study of individual situations; mgrs dev precise standard procedure, select works with ability, provide wage incentive to increase output
Part of dynamic social system; has discretion and responsibility; may be changing; few rules or procedures
Contextual dimension
characterizes whole organization --size, technology, environment and goals; describes organizational setting that influences and shapes structural dimensions; represent both organizational and environment; set of overlapping elements beneath structure and processes
(1) social entities (2)goal directed (3)designed as deliberately structured & coordinated activity systems (4)linked to external environment
Contextual dimension / culture
Underlying et of key values, beliefs, understandings, norms shared by employees. Unwritten but observable in stories, slogans, ceremonies, dress, office layout.
Rigid to Adaptive culture
Learning org. culture encourages openess,equality, continuous improvement and change; symbols that illustrate differences disappear
Technical core
People who do basic work, produces the product service out, production depart in manufacturing;teachers; medical services
Vertical to Horizontal Structure
Learning organization vertical hierarchy is flattened; doesn't allow for quick reaction
Structural dimensionn /professionalism
level of formal education/training
Competitive to Collaborative
Learning organizational not top down but all share in identifying needs and solutions; strategy comes from partnership with suppliers, customers and competitors
Structural dimension/ Personnel rations
Deployment of people to various funcions; admin ratio, clerical ration. Meausred by dividing the number of employees in a classification by the total number of organizational employees
one thing depends on other things, for organizations to fit there must be a goodness of fit between their structure and conditions in their external environment. There is not one best way. It denpends. The correct management approach is contingent on the organization's situation.
Contextual dimension / Organizational technology
Tools, techniques, actions to transform inputs to outputs
Narrowly defined piece of work assigned to a person. Employees expected to do as they are told.
closed system
(1)not depend on environment (2)autonomous (3) true closed system does not exist (4) early mgt concepts = scientific mgt, leadership style, industrial engr = took environment for granted (5) primary mgt issue to run things efficiently
organizational behavior
micro approach to organizations; examines concepts such as motivation, leadership style; concerned with cognitive and emotional differences among people within organizations
Organizational dimension
(1) structural dimension (2)contextual dimension
Formal Control to shared information
In learning org; knowledge is shared, keeping organizations functioning at an optimum level. Learning org strives to return to small firm; mgrs try to open channels of information
Contextual dimension / environment
All elements outside of the organization = industry, government, customers, suppliers, financial community other organizations.
Routine task to empowered roles
shift in degree of formal structure and control
Contextual dimension / Size
Number of people in organization
Formal Control to shared information
In learning org; knowledge is shared, keeping organizations functioning at an optimum level. Learning org strives to return to small firm; mgrs try to open channels of information
Structural dimension /Formalization
written documents in organization: procedures, job description, regs policies
shared mindset that represents a fundamental way of perceiving, conceptualizing and understanding the world.
Directs and coordinates other parts of organization: (1) top mgt provides direction, strategy, goals and policies (2) middle mgt provides implementation and coordination at departmental level
shared mindset that represents a fundamental way of perceiving, conceptualizing and understanding the world.
(1) set of interacting elements (2) acquires input from environment (3) transforms them (4)discharges output to external environment
Organization theory
macro examination of organizations; analyzes whole organization as a unit; sociology at organizations vice organiz behavior which is psychology of organization; more concerned with upper management vice lower management; concerned with big picture and major departments
Administrative Principles
design and functioning of the organization as a whole - contributed to dev of bureaucratic organizations as a whole
level of analysis
(1) human being (2)group or dept (3)organization itself (4) interorganizational set/community
every organization has 5 parts (1) technical core (2) technical support (3) admin support (4)top mgt (5)middle mgt
(1) perform specific functtions required for organizational survival -- prduction, boundary spanning, maint, adaptation, mgt (2) produces product/service output (3) responsible for exchanges with external environment (4) purchsing supplies, mkting
Structural dimension/Centralization
Refers to hierarchical level that has authority ot make decision;lower level = decentralized; higher level = centralized
Technical support
Helps organization adapt to environment. Engr/researchers scan environment for problems, opportunities, tech dev -- creates innovations, helps organizations to change and adapt
Administration Support
Responsible for smooth operation and upkeep of organization; physical and human elements, maintenance of bldgs, service and repair of machines
Contextual dimension / goals and strategy
purpose and competitive techniques setting org apart from other orgs; define scope of operations and relationship with employees, customers and competitors
Classical Organization Perspective
make organizations run like efficient machines, associated with dev of hierarchy and bureaucratic organizatins; remain basis for much of modern mgt theory and practice. Subfields - scientific mgt and admin principles
Structural dimension / Hierarchy of Authority
Who reports to whom: related to) span of control (number of employees reporting to supervisor
Structural dimension
provide labels to describe internal characteristics that create a basis for measuring and comparing organizations