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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Approach 1: Prescriptive Views of Culture
Functional Perspective: Culture is something an organization HAS.
"you either got it or you don't"
Approach 2: Alternate Approaches to Culture (Descriptive?)
Symbolic Perspective: Culture is something an organization IS.
Deal and Kennedy's Corporate Culture
-Values
-Heroes
-Rites and Rituals
-Cultural Network
Peter and Waterman's In Search of Excellence
(Prescriptive View)
**Emphasize PEOPLE over Structure**
1. A bias for action
2. Close relations to the customer
3. Autonomy and entrepreneurship
4. Productivity through people
5. Hands-on, value-driven
6. Stick to the knitting
7. Simple form, lean staff
8. Simultaneous loose-tight properties
Org Cultures are Complicated
Metaphors: Employees and management in a study of the culture of Disneyland
Stories: are the best way to reveal culture
Ceremonies
Values and Belief Systems
Communication Rules
Hallway Talk
Org Cultures are Emergent
Interactional- require participation of multiple org members
Contextual- they are embedded in org situations and org history
Episodic- nameable as distinct events
Improvisational-no scripts that guide org members
Org Cultures are not unitary
Differentiation approach:inconsistencies among cultural views are expected and often seen as desirable
Subculture Slices: There are a number of sites where culture might develop in an organization "vertical slice" (a division) and "horizontal slice" (a hierarchical level)
ex: a certain group develops a special vocab to talk about things in their area of work
org cultures are often ambiguous
Fragmentation perspective: there is not always a clear picture of the org's culture, or of its subcultures. Studies will see an ambiguous culture as normal, salient, and inescapable part of organizational functioning
Definition of Culture
Group Phenomenon: striving toward patterning and integration
Pattern of basic assumptions: specific values that are a given
emergent and development process: cultures are learned as problems arise
socializing: when you enter a new culture, you learn their values
Level One: Artifacts
Schein's Onion Model
Technology, Art, Visible and audible behavior patterns
-THINGS!
Level Two: Espoused Values
Testable in the physical enviornment
-Testable only by social consenses
-WHAT OUGHT TO HAPPEN
Level Three: Basic Assumptions
THE WAY THINGS ARE
-Reality and truth
-Time
-Space
-Human Nature
-Human Activity
-Human Relationships
Ethnography
Writing of Culture
-Will become immersed in org life
-participant observation
Grounded Theory
-Observations, mini theory
Writing up Culture
Telling a Cultural tale
-Realist tale (Documentary)
-Confessional tale (What they observed, personal)
(Impressionist Tale- narrative)
-Critical tale (uncovering power structures)