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26 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 phases of Lewin's Change Process Model?
1. The “Unfreezing” Phase
2. The “Changing” Phase
3. The “Refreezing” Phase
What happens during the "unfreezing" phase of Lewin's Change Process Model?
The “Unfreezing” Phase
-Create a felt need for change.
-Reduce resistance to change.
What happens during the "changing" phase of Lewin's Change Process Model?
The “Changing” Phase
- Implement the change by modifying tasks, people, structures, processes, and the culture.

- Provide management support to employees.
What happens during the "refreezing" phase of Lewin's Change Process Model?
The “Refreezing” Phase

Key: Reinforce or “institutionalize” the change through job design, formal policies and procedures, flow charts, mission statements/strategic plans, etc.
Hoosiers video Clip-- what are the barriers to change facing the new basketball coach?
find out
What are the 6 strategies for overcoming resistance to change?
1. Education and Communication
2. Employee involvement and participation
3. Support
4. Incentives
5. Co-Optation
6. Coercion
When should you use the education and communication strategy to overcome resistance to change?
When employees do not understand the change or how it will affect them.
What are potential problems when using the education and communication strategy to overcome resistance to change?
Potentially time-consuming and costly
When should you use the 'Employee involvement and participation' strategy to overcome resistance to change?
- When it is important to obtain the “buy-in” of employees.
- When employees may have good ideas regarding the design and implementation of the change.
What are potential problems when using the 'Employee involvement and participation' strategy to overcome resistance to change?
- potentially time-consuming and costly
When should you use the 'support' strategy to overcome resistance to change?
- When employees lack the knowledge or skills needed to support the change.

- When employees feel that they are not capable of supporting the change.

- When employees need additional staff or resources to implement the change.
What are potential problems when you use the 'support' strategy to overcome resistance to change?
Potentially time-consuming and costly
When should you use the 'Incentives' strategy to overcome resistance to change?
- When it is important to motivate employees to support the change.
- When it is important to reward employees for implementing the change.
What is a potential problem when you use the 'Incentives' strategy to overcome resistance to change?
potentially costly
When should you use the 'Co-Optation' strategy to overcome resistance to change?
When you need the “buy-in” of an individual and other tactics have failed.
What are some potential problems when you use the 'Co-Optation' strategy to overcome resistance to change?
may be perceived as "manipulative" by some people
When should you use the 'Coercion' strategy to overcome resistance to change?
- When time is critical and the change must be implemented now.
- When other tactics have failed.
What are some potential problems when you use the 'Coercion' strategy to overcome resistance to change?
- May strain working relationships with employees.
- Employees may reject the change in more subtle ways.
What are the 6 Practical Implications of Managing Change Effectively?
1.Recognize that change is very difficult for many employees.

2.Involve managers and employees in the design and implementation of the change whenever possible.

3.Take the time to educate others about the change and how it will affect them.

4.Provide management support when implementing the change.

5.Reinforce or institutionalize the change after it has been implemented.

6.Build organizational systems that can be flexible and responsive to the external environment.
What are the 5 causes of resistance to change?
1. Self-Interest
2. Uncertainty (outta comfort zone)
3. Lack of understanding and trust (no explanation)
4. Habit (routine behavior)
5. Change in Social/Working Relationships
Define Organizational Development
Organizational development (OD) has been defined as “an effort
(1) planned,
(2) organization-wide, and
(3) managed from the top, to
(4) increase organizational effectiveness and health through
(5) planned interventions in the organization’s ‘process,’ using behavioral science knowledge.”
ID the 6 elements of the OD process
1. ID a need for change
2. Select a technique for change
3. Gather top management support
4. Plan the change process
5. Overcome resistance to change
6. Evaluate the change process
ID the 11 conditions for successful OD programs
- Recognition by managers and members that the organization has problems.
- Use of an external change agent to start the process.
- Support from top management for the change process.
- Involvement of work group leaders.
- Early success with the change effort.
- Understanding of the change process and its goals.
- Support of managerial strengths.
- Inclusion of human resource managers in the OD program.
- Development of internal OD resources.
- Effective management of the OD program.
- Measurement and evaluation of results.
Define a learning organization
In learning organizations “people continually expand their capacity to
- create the results they truly desire,
-where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured,
-where collective aspiration is set free, and
-where people continually learn how to learn together.”

Learning orgs develop specific learning capabilities not present in traditional organizations.
What are 4 strategies for developing learning organizations?
- Learning leaders
- Leadership communities
- Learning infrastructures
- Learning Cultures
What are the 5 steps in the bottom line process of developing a learning organization effectively?
1. Leaders generate "creative tension" by convincing workers that a significant gap exists b/w the status quo and a future vision
2. leaders provide support for a wide range of learning activities throughout various units in an organization to create learning communities
3. Leaders help to create and establish formal systems and processes to support learning activities throughout the org
4. Leaders model behaviors that support a learningn org and foster a culture that values learning
5. Leaders evaluate the performance of workers, units, and the org based on learning- related outcomes