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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is motivation and its basic characteristics?
The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal.
- Effort
- Persistence
- Direction (quality)
- Goals
Contrast extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task, usually self applied. While extrinsic stems from the work environment external to the task, usually applied by others.
What are two important forms of intelligence?
General cognitive ability: Information processing capacity and cognitive resources (verbal, numerical, spatial, reasoning)
Emotional Intelligence: Ability to understand and manage one's own and other's feelings and emotions.
Outline Salovey and Mayer's EI model.
- Perception of emotions
- Integration and assimilation of emotions
- Knowledge and understanding of emotions
- Management of emotions
List Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
- Physiological needs
- Safety needs
- Belongingness needs
- Esteem needs
- Self-actualization needs
Describe Alderfer's ERG theory.
Existence needs: Satisfied by some material substance or condition.
Relatedness needs: Satisfied by open communication and the exchange of thoughts and feelings with other organizational members.
Growth needs: Fulfilled by strong personal involvement in the work setting.
What are the major differences between Maslow's hierarchy and Alderfer's ERG theory?
Unlike need hierarchy, ERG theory does not assume a lower-level need MUST be gratified first.

ERG theory assumes that if high-level needs are ungratified, individuals will increase desire for low-level, while Maslow's says fulfilled low-level lose all motivational properties.
What are the three needs in McClelland's theory of needs?
Need for achievement - n Ach

Need for affiliation - n Aff

Need for power - n Pow

Note: Motivation comes from learned needs. People will be motivated at work to the extent that their job matches their needs.
What research support exists for need theory?
Because of the rigidity of Maslow's hierarchy, little research support exists.
Several tests indicate good support for Alderfer's ERG and recently, for McClelland's need theory.
What is the research support for expectancy theory?
Moderately favourable support - in particular, good evidence that valence of first-level outcomes depends on the extent that they lead to favourable second-level consequences.

However, complexity of the theory makes it difficult to test.
What are some implications of expectancy theory?
- Boost expectancies
- Clarify reward contingencies
- Appreciate diverse needs
How can one modify the equity relationship?
- Perceptually distort one's own inputs or outcomes.
- Perceptually distory the inputs or outcomes of the comparison.
- Choose another comparison.

- Alter one's inputs or alter one's outcomes.
- Leave the exchange relationship.
What kinds of goals are motivational?
- Specific goals
- Challenging goals
- Goals that are committed to
- Goals that give feedback
List some methods to enhance goal committment.
- Encourage participation in goal setting
- Offer rewards for goal acheivement
- Act in a supportive manner
What are the mechanisims in which goal setting improves performance?
- Direct attention toward goal-relevent activities (direction)
- Lead to greater effort (effort)
- Increase and prolong persistence (persistence)
- Lead to discovery and use of task-relevant strategies for goal attainment (task strategies)
What are the cultural limitations of motivation theories?
- Individualistic vs. collectivist societies will view self-actualization and esteem needs differently, as well as fairness (equity vs. equality)

- Expectancy theory is very flexible and effective applied cross-culturally.

- Goal setting is also effective cross-culturally, but care must be taken in selecting appropriate goals and reward contingencies.
What are some potential problems of wage incentives?
Wage incentives: Production jobs.

- Lowered quality
- Differential opportunity
- Reduced cooperation
- Incompatible job design
- Restriction of productivity
What are some potential problems with merit pay plans?
Merit pay plans: White-collar jobs.

- Low discrimination
- Small increases
- Pay secrecy
How can pay be used to motivate teamwork? What is necessary in each methods and what are the advantages and disadvantages of each?
- Profit sharing & Stock ownership plans
- Employees must be able to influence profits and owners must value contribution.
- Simple and easy, guaranteed affordability, unites interest of owners and employees.
- Employers may ignore long-term performance, force majeure may influence profits, private companies must open books to employees.

- Gainsharing
- Objectives must be measureable, management must encourage involvement, employees must trust management.
- Enhances coordination and teamwork, employees learn about business focus on objectives, work harder and smarter.
- Employees may ignore other objectives like quality, may have to pay bonuses even when unprofitable.

- Skill-based pay
- Skills must be identified and assigned pay grade, company must develop employee assessment and training.
- Company operates with leaner flexible staff, worker have holistic perspective better at problem solving.
- Most employees will learn all skills dramatically raising labour costs, training costs are high.
Describe Hackman & Oldham's job characteristics model.
Core job characteristics
- Skill variety
- Task identity
- Task significance
- Autonomy
- Feedback from job
Lead to:
Critical psychological states
- Experienced meaningfulness of work
- Experienced responsibility for outcomes
- Knowledge of actual results

Moderators: KSA, Growth need, Context satisfactions

- High internal work motivation
- High growth satisfaction
- High general job satisfaction
- High work effectiveness
How can jobs be enriched? What are some potential problems with job enrichment?
Enriched by:
- Combining tasks
- Establishing ext/int client relationships
- Reducing supervision/reliance on others
- Forming work teams
- Making feedback more direct

- Poor diagnosis
- Lack of desire or skill
- Demand for rewards
- Supervisory resistance
What is the MBO cycle?
- Meet and set objectives
- Monitor progress
- Evaluate
- Repeat
Differentiate between the job of a leader and of a manager.
Leader: - Establish organizational mission
- Formulate strategy for implementing mission

Manager:- Implement organizational strategy
What are two types of leaders?
Task leader- Concerned with accomplishing a task by organizing others, planning strategy, dividing labour.

Social-emotional leader- Concerned with reducing tension, patching up disagreements, settling arguments, maintaining morale.
What is Fiedler's contingency theory?
It states that the association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influence.
What affects the situational favourableness of leadership?
- Leader-member relations: Better relationship leads to favourable leadership situation.

- Task structure: Highly structured task allows leader to exert considerable influence of group.

- Position power: The greater formal authority of a leader, the more favourable is the leadership situation.
What is Path-Goal theory?
House's theory concerned with the situations in which various leader behaviours:
- directive
- supportive
- participative
- achievement oriented
...are most effective.
Which situational factors affect Path-Goal theory?
Employee characteristics:
- Need achievement? Achievement-oriented.
- Prefer being told what to do. Directive.
- Feel low task ability. Directive, coaching.

Environmental factors:
- Task clear and routine? NO directive & supportive.
- Task challenging and abiguous? Participative & Directive.
- Task frustrating or dissatisfying? Supportive
What are the advantages and problems of participative leadership?
- Motivation
- Quality
- Acceptance

- Time and Energy
- Loss of Power
- Lack of Receptivity or Knowledge
What is LMX theory?
Leader-Member Exchange is a theory of leadership focused on the quality of the relationship that develops between leader and employee.
What are characteristics of high LMX? Low LMX?
High Leader-Member Exchange is characterized by mutual influence, obligation, trust, loyalty, respect.

Low Leader-Member Exchange is marked by low trust, respect, obligation, and mutual support. Leader provides less attention and latitude to employees and employees on do their job descriptions.
What are the components of transformational leadership?
- Intellectual stimulation
- Individualized consideration
- Charisma
What are the stages in developing charisma?
- Evaluate status quo for opportunities for change.
- Formulate vision or mission that challenges status quo. Ability to change is emphasized.
- Influence followers to achieve the new vision.
What is developmental leadership and its components?
A style of leadership that involves working with organizational members as partners and using persuasion and negotiation to acheive committment rather than compliance.

- Self-management: lead others to lead themselves.
- Empowerment.
- Persuasion and negotiation.
What is strategic leadership and its components?
Ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, thing strategically, and work with others to initiate changes.

- Determine purpose or vision
- Exploit core competencies
- Develop human capital
- Sustain effective organizational culture
- Emphasize ethical practices
- Establish balanced organizational controls
What is global leadership? What characteristics belong to global leaders?
Leadership capabilities require to function effectively in different cultures and the ability to cross language, social, economic, and political boundaries.

- Unbridled inquisitiveness
- Personal character
- Duality
- Savvy
Contrast perfect and bounded rationality.
Perfect rationality - can gather info about problems and solutions without cost and is completely informed; is perfectly logical; has only one criterion for decision making: economic gain.

Bounded rationality - relies on limited information and reflects time constraints and political considerations.
What is the rational decision making process?
1. Identify problem
2. Search for relevant information
3. Develop alternative solutions
4. Evaluate alternative solutions
5. Choose best solution
6. Implement chosen solution
7. Monitor and evaluate chosen solution
What problems can bounded rationality have for problem identification?
- Perceptual defense
- Problem defined in terms of functional specialty
- Problem defined in terms of solution
- Problem defined in terms of symptoms
What problems can irrational decision making have during the development, evaluation and choice of alternatives?
- People avoid incorporating known existing data (base rates)
- People use small samples
- Decision makers overestimate the odds of complex chains of events
- People are poor at revising estimates of probabilities (anchoring effect)
How can we prevent the tendency to escalate committment to a failing course of action?
- Encourage continuous experimentation with reframing the problem: shift frame to saving rather than spending.
- Set specific goals for the project in advance.
- Place emphasis in evaluating on HOW decisions are made not on outcomes.
- Seperate initial and subsequent decision making roles.
How does mood affect decision making?
- Positive mood: remember positive information and vice-versa.
- Positive mood: evaluate objects, people, and events more positively, and vise-versa.
- Good mood: overestimate likelihood of good events, underestimate bad events.
- Good mood: adopt simplified short cut decision making strategies.
- Positive mood promotes creative, intuitive decision making.
Why use groups?
- Decision quality
- More vigilant
- Generate more ideas
- Evaluate ideas better
- Decision acceptance and commitment
- Wish to be involved in decisions affecting them
- Better understanding
- More committed after investing time and energy
- Diffusion of responsibility
When do groups make better decisions?

- group members differ in KSAs
- some division of labour can occur
- memory for facts is important
- individual judgments can be combined by weighting to expertise
What are disadvantages to group decision making?
- Time
- Conflict
- Domination
- Groupthink
What are symptoms of groupthink?
- Illusion of invulnerability
- Rationalization
- Illusion of morality
- Stereotypes of outsiders
- Pressure for conformity
- Self-censorship
- Illusion of unanimity
- Mindguards
How can decision making be improved?
- Train discussion leaders to be nondefensive, objective, and to not suggest solutions or preferences and to supply essential facts and clarify constraints.

- Stimulate and manage controversy (devil's advocates).
- Use traditional and electronic brainstorming.
- Nominal group technique
- Delphi technique