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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an organization?
Defenition -- conciously coordinated social unit composed of 2 or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal.
How does OB contribute to bottom line. Know all of these, and give example of one:
a. Improving quality,
b. productivity,
c. people skills,
d. customer service
What is organizational citizenship?
Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements but which promotes effective functioning of the organization. Know some examples --
a. assisting others on the workteam,
b. volunteering for extra job activities,
c. avoiding unnecessary conflicts,

making constructive statements about one's workgroup
4. What effect does high employee turnover have on organizations?
High rates increase costs and tend to place less experienced people in jobs.
What are the factors of organizational behavior?
6. What are the goals of organizational behavior?
What are the Contributing disciplines to OB?
Psychology, anthropology, poly sci, sociology, social psychology
Describe process reengineering.
Requires that managers make more than incremental changes in processes and involves evaluating every process in terms of contribution to org goals (get rid of inefficient processes)
Looking at the processes as if they were starting over.
9. What changes have managers had to make in order to adjust to globalization?
 increased foreign assignments
 overseeing movement of jobs to countries with lower labor costs
 coping with anti-capitalism backlash
 working with people from different cultures
Workforce diversity
Organizations are becoming a more diverse in terms of gender, race, age, ethnicity, and sexual orientation
what are the 5 parts to quality management.
a. Intense focus on the customer.
b. Concern for continual improvement.
c. Improvement in the quality of everything that the organization does.
d. Empowerment of employees.
e. Accurate measurement. (stats, set benchmarks)
What is Job satisfaction and fairness
if your perception of work is fair, then you are satisfied
13. How does job satisfaction relate to productivity?
Current research indicates that satisfaction may lead to productivity but not for certain
What is the value system
values systems represent a prioritizing by the relative importance an individual assigns to such values as freedom, pleasure, self-respect, honesty, obedience, and equality
(choose between definitions)
What are attitudes and what is a personality?
Evaluative statements concerning objects, people, and events

set of psychological traits used to classify a person
What are the two parts to the Rokeach Value Survey?
Terminal, Instrumental
What are the types of Work Cohorts?
a. Veterans -- Hard working, conservative, conforming. Loyalty to the organization

baby-boomers -- Success-oriented, ambitious, dislikes authority. Loyalty to career

gen-x -- Team-oriented, focus on work/life balance, dislikes rules. Loyalty to relationships

gen-y -- Confident, self-reliant but team-oriented. Loyalty to self and relationships

know this very well, better than just short answers (essay)
What are two perception errors?
a. Stereotype - judge an object or person based on their association with a group know definitions
b. Halo effect -- draw a general impression about someone/something based on a single characteristic
What is cognitive dissonance?
Inconsistencies between two or more of a person's attitudes or a person's behavior and attitudes. People seek to minimize cognitive dissonance and avoid it
What are the parts to the Big Five Model?
a. Extroversion
b. Agreeableness
c. Conscientiousness
d. Emotional stability
e. Openness to experience
21. Compare and contrast job satisfaction and job stress.
Job Satisfaction - One’s general attitude toward his/her job.

Satisfaction is a perception.

Job satisfaction does not necessarily equate to higher productivity

Job Stress - The difference between an individual’s perceived state and an individual’s desired state if the individual feels the difference is important
What are the Determinances of job satisfaction -- essay question
Mentally challenging work
Supportive working conditions
Supportive colleagues

The Big Picture – What it is that the company is aiming at.
Employee Contribution – Where the employees themselves fit into the big picture.
Clear Plan of Achievement – How employees will fulfill their parts in the big picture.
Flexibility – Managers who care about the concerns and wants of the employees.
What is Locus of control
whether you believe you control your own fate or your fate controls you
What are Moods and emotions?
Moods - cause general and unclear, last longer than emotions, cognitive in nature

Emotions - caused by specific event, brief in duration, action oriented in nature
What are felt and displayed emotions?
a. Actual feelings are feelings that you often show

Displayed - when you are in a bad mood and have to act happy be able to write this one down and explain it shortly
What is learning? What are learning strategies?
Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience

Learning that takes place in gradual steps. Happens through systematic reinforcement by management (i. e. rewards) know a definition for a multiple choice
What are the 4 experiments of the Hawthorne Studies?
a. Elimination
b. Interviewing
c. Bank-wire observation
d. Assembly test room
What is attribution theory?
explanations of how we judge people differently depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behavior.

Fundamental error -- we underestimate external forces and overestimate internal forces
Self-serving bias -- attribute success to internal and failure to external
What are needs?
a physiological or psychological deficiency that makes certain outcomes appear attractive.
What is Maslow's Heirarchy? know what you desire in each level, particularly social
a. Physiological
b. Safety - security and protections
c. *Social* -- affectionate, acceptance, friends
d. Esteem - self-respect, autonomy,
e. Self-actualizaion
What is 31. McGregor's theory X & Y -- know this one to write out short definitions to both theories
a. X -- Employees dislike work and will avoid it. Must be threatened with punishments to act or coerced. Avoid responsibility -- seek formal direction.
b. Y -- Work is as natural as play, people like responsibility, people exercise self-direction and self-control. Accepts, seeks responsibility.
What is bounded rationality?
idea of constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity
33. What are the job scheduling techniques?
Flextime – Allowing employees some power (with some restrictions) on setting their schedule
Job Sharing – Splitting a job between 2 or more people
Telecommuting – Working at least 2 days in a work week away from work via computer
What is goal-setting theory?
people are motivated by their intentions, most effective when they are realistic, challenging, specific, followed with feedback/rewards
What is the job characteristics model?
a. Skill variety
b. Task identity
c. Task significance
d. Autonomy
e. Feedback
What are job redesign methods?
a. Job rotation -- occasionally shifting employee tasks
b. Job enlargement -- giving employees more to do, horizontal

Job enrichment -- vertical, increases degree to which the worker controls planning, execution, evaluation of work
What are Variably Pay-programs?
a. Bonuses
b. Piece rate pay plans -- paid for each completion
c. Profit sharing plans -- organization-wide based on company's profitability

Gain sharing -- group incentive plan, improvements in group productivity
38. What is social information processing (SIP)?
The perception of the employee is the determinant of the motivational effect

The perceptions of the employees are affected by attitudes and perceptions of those around them.
What are the universal emotions?
What are Common decision-making biases?
a. Availability -- use information that's readily available to you, and naturally creates biases

b. Escalation of commitment error -- sticking with decision even though there is clear evidence of it being wrong
41. Describe intuition.
Intuition is based on feelings that are often linked to one’s experience.
Studies show that intuition can be a powerful tool in making good management decisions.*
42. What are the factors that we identified in class as part of Hofstede’s framework?
Power Distance – the degree to which one accepts the distribution of power from the top-down.

Individualism vs. Collectivism – the degree to which one prefers to act alone or as a community.

Quantity of Life vs. Quality of Life – the degree to which one prefers relationships and personal development to power and material goods.

Uncertainty Avoidance – the degree to which one avoids situations of uncertainty.

Long-Term vs. Short-Term Orientation – the degree to which one makes plans based on the past, present, or future.
What is a part of Emotional Intelligence?
Empathy - ability to sense how others are feeling
What is the Rational decision-making model -- know them pretty in-depth, pg. 56 essay question

What's the problem with rational decision-making model?
a. Define the problem

b. Identify the decision criteria -- determining what is relevant in making the decision

c. Allocation weights to the criteria

d. Develop alternatives

e. Evaluate alternatives

f. Select the best alternative

Assumes you have clear and obvious problem
Assumes access to info on every
Assumes you have preference that you are going to choose

Basic limitations: bias, intuition, individual developmental differences, organizational constraints, culture
Define Customer Satisfaction and Service Recovery
Customer Satisfaction - Determined by the difference between a customer’s expectation and how the actual product or service is perceived.

Service Recovery - the strategy companies use to return a dissatisfied customer to a state of satisfaction after a service has failed to meet customer expectations.
46. What are the benefits of service recovery, as discussed in class?
Higher Cost Savings
Increase Revenue
Improve Customer Satisfaction
Stronger Customer Loyalty
47. What did Dr. DeTienne and her colleagues hypothesize in her service recovery research and what were the research results?
Whether the level of recovery design (psychological and tangible activities) affects the success of the service recovery.

Whether the degree of service failure affects the success of the service recovery.

Whether the combination of the level of recovery design and the degree of initial service failure affect service recovery success.
48. Compare and contrast tangible and psychological service recovery.

The way organizations identify and correct actual or perceived service recoveries.

This is usually a physical way organizations acknowledge and correct the failure.

Customers are most interested in fairness.

Completing the initial service
Re-performing the service
Exchanging the product
Refunding the cost

The way organizations respond to the thoughts and feelings of their constituents when a service failure has occurred.

The response can be verbal or non-verbal.

Giving an apology
 Empathy Patience Optimism Sincerity Knowledgeability Politeness Friendliness
What is McClelland's theory of needs?
What is Reinforcement Theory?
opposite of goal-setting theory