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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the 4 Perceptional Distortions
1. Stereotyping
2. Halo effect
3. Projection
4. Self Fulfilling Prophecy
Stereotyping
a.Assuming others have certain characteristics/attitudes b/c they belong to certain group/category.
b. EX: “Blondes have more fun” or “All managers are smart”
Halo Effect
a. Letting one key feature or trait dominate his/her evaluation of a person or thing
b. EX: manager judges person who works long hrs as highly cooperative & productive
Projection
a. Occurs when an individual attributes his (negative) attitudes or feelings to another person
b. Used as defense mechanism – way of transferring blame
c. EX: people attribute own prejudices against minorities, mgrs, or employees to others
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
a. Occurs when we expect certain behaviors from other participants and then see these behaviors as occurring whether or not they actually exist.
b. EX: Fears of Y2K bug led to concerns that motorists might top off their gasoline tanks in the last 10 days of 1999 to avoid possible shortages created by reports of potential Y2K glitches. This “topping-off party” could have created a self-fulfilling prophecy of gasoline shortages.
Hierarchy Of Needs
2 people
1. Maslow
a. assumptions
b. levels
2. Alderfer
a. levels
b. agreed
c. unlike
d. example
e. Frustration principle
Maslows levels in the heirarchy of needs
1. Self actualization
2. Esteem
3. Belongingness and Love
4. Safety and Security
5. Physiological
Maslows Assumptions
1. People are motivated to satisfy unmet needs
2. Progression Principle lower level needs must be satisfied first before you progress to next
3. Satisfied needs do not motivate
a. Lowest level needs (extrinsically satisfied)
b. Higher level needs (intrinsically satisfied)
Alderfer's levels
1. Growth
2. Relatedness
3. Existence
Alderfer
1. agreed 55
2. Unlike Maslow, “satisfying higher level needs caused them to increase in importance”
3. EX: If worker wanted a promotion:______ believed that worker would continue to strive to satisfy their need
for a promotion, b/c need became more intense.
(Worker keeps at it until he satisfies that need.)
- ______ believed that
4. Frustration Principle (frustration regression principle)
1. (realizing you just won’t get your promotion)
2. Person experiences frustration in satisfying higher-level need, which would cause him to return to lower-level need.
3. EX: worker failed to satisfy her social needs (belongingness and love), she might try to meet security needs instead.
Physiological Needs
Needs required to sustain life, such as:
 Air
 Water
 Food
 Sleep

According to Maslow's theory, if these fundamental needs are not satisfied then one will surely be motivated to satisfy them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not recognized until one satisfies the needs basic to existence.
Safety Needs
Once physiological needs are met, one's attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm.

-- Desire for security or protection. While safety needs once focused on the
handling of hazardous materials and problems w/ remote parking locations, now managers have to deal w/ problems associated w/ workers’ use of video-display terminals and secondary smoke in the workplace.

-- EX of attempts to meet safety needs:
 Instituting safety programs that involve watchdog committees
 Instituting no-smoking policies
 Special security precautions for workers who must walk to remote parking areas.

-- According to the Maslow hierarchy, if a person feels threatened, needs further up the pyramid will not receive attention until that need has been resolved.
Belongingness and Love
Focus on social aspects of work and non-work situations.

EX: Organizations that hold regular social activities, such as sports leagues and holiday parties
Esteem Needs
Once a person feels a sense of "belonging", the need to feel important
arises. These needs refer to a person’s concern for mastery, competence, and
status. They desire recognition for their accomplishments.

Some esteem needs are:
 Self-respect
 Achievement
 Attention
 Recognition
 Reputation

*** Both Belongingness and Love & Esteem involve the idea of acceptance.
Difference: Belongingness - involves acceptance as we are.
Esteem - involves acceptance to what we accomplished
Self Actualization
the summit of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. It is the quest of
reaching one's full potential as a person. Unlike lower level needs, this need is never fully satisfied; as one grows psychologically there are always new opportunities to continue to grow.

-- Self-actualized people tend to have needs such as:



-- Self-actualized persons have frequent occurrences of peak experiences, which
are energized moments of profound happiness and harmony.

-- According to Maslow, only a small percentage of the population reaches the
level of self-actualization.
3 Need theories of motivation
1. Hierarchy of needs
2. McClelland’s Need Theory
3. Motivator-Hygeine theory
McClelland’s 3 Types of Needs
1. Need for achievement
2. Need for Affiliation
3. Need for Power
Need for Achievement
1. Desire to accomplish goals and demonstrate competence and mastery.
2. Focus on getting job done quickly and well.
3. EX: Sales, managers
Need for Affiliation
1. Need for social interaction, love, and affection
Need for Power
1. Need for control over a person’s own work or work of others.
2. EX: entrepreneurs, leaders, ruling monarchs, political leaders, some execs in large companies.
McClelland's Needs Theory
b. All of us have all 3 needs, just not in = proportions
c. McClelland and colleagues believed that people could be taught to have need for achievement ->increase performance
Motivator-Hygiene Theory
a. (Before Herzberg, workers were either satisfied or dissatisfied)
b. Herzberg focused on job satisfaction as key component of motivation
i. Asked:
1.What about job makes you feel good?
2. What about job makes you feel bad?
ii. Found that what people said made them feel good about jobs were different from what made them feel bad about job.
iii. Divided work into:
1. Hygiene Factors
a. Features of job context
i. Company policies, practices
ii. Wages
iii. Benefits
iv. Working conditions
b. Manager who improve hygiene factors reduce a person’s dissatisfaction with his work situation and increase the impact of the motivators.
c. Although hygiene factors do not encourage workers to exert more effort, they must be at an acceptable level before motivators can have a positive effect.
d. Managers increase overall satisfaction by reducing dissatisfaction and increasing satisfaction.
e. EX: Offer autonomy & responsibility to employees w/ poor working conditions  worker dissatisfaction and hinders motivation.

2. Motivators
a. Features of job content
i. Responsibility
ii. Self-esteem
iii. Autonomy
iv. growth
b. Satisfy higher-order needs & result in job satisfaction.
c. Managers can increase motivators by giving workers more autonomy, responsibility, and creativity in their jobs, & thereby encouraging them to exert more effort and perform better.
Evaluating and Applying Needs Theories
• Concept of needs is difficult to prove/disprove
• Managers have difficulty specifying and measuring needs
• In spite of limitations, managers can use them to help motivate workers
o What needs do employees have?
o What needs have they satisfied, and how have they satisfied them?
o Which needs are not satisfied?
o How can managers increase motivators?
Equity Theory
a. People compare their own jobs situation to comparison other
b. Perceptions influence motivation
c. Do I feel that I am being treated fairly right now?
d. Employees most motivated when ration of inputs to outputs = that of comparison other
e. Are my rewards I receive fair compared to comparison other?
i. Yes  everyone happy--balance, equity
ii. No  inequity –deal w/ unfairness
f. Equal ratios of outputs/inputs  lead to higher motivation, high outcomes
g. Unequal ratios  cause worker to alter inputs (less work, fewer hours worked, distraction, additional training refusal)
h. What happens when inequities exists?
i. Person A believes ratio too small
1. Reduce inputs
2.Ask for more outputs
3. Change comparison other
4.Rationalize that equity exists
5. Leave situation

ii. Person B believes ratio too big
1. Increase inputs
2. Ask for less outputs
3. Change comparison other
4. Rationalize that equity exists
5. Leave situation
Evaluation & Application of Equity Theory
-Differences in intelligence, social values, personality, and gender ->influences on
employee’s perception of inequity.

-Women and minorities today attuned to inequity b/c of experiences of intense
discrimination.

-People from different cultures likely have different equity sensitivity.
(Equity) Application –Managers should:
* Be able to diagnose/reduce inequities by identify workers’ inputs, outputs, outcomes,
& comparison other
* Check to see if comparability exists
* Encourage employees to make equity judgments based on accurate info
* Inform employees about reasons of wages, promotions, or job changes
* Ensure outcomes match inputs
Expectancy Theory
a. Behavior in present is based on expectation of future reward
b. 3 Basic Elements
i. Expectancy -> individual’s perception that his effort (E) will result in performance (P), such as higher productivity or increased sales
ii. Instrumentality -> person’s perception that performance will result in certain positive or negative outcomes (O), such as promotion, increased wages, greater fatigue, or loneliness.
iii. Valence (V) -> value the person attaches to various outcomes that result. The person may assign a positive valence to a promotion but a neg valence to fatigue.

Victor Vroom – popularized 1960s Theory

[Motivation = Expectancy X Instrumentality X Valence]

c. Performance can lead to multiple outcomes, each w/ different values
i. (We don’t all value same outcome)
d. Criticisms:
i. Assumes Ability – If put forth effort, you’ll have reasonable performance
ii. Too Complex – overlooks people’s needs
Evaluation & Application of Expectancy Theory
Although may oversimplify process, it can still be used to diagnose motivational problems or evaluate effective motivation by asking:
o Does employee perceive that effort will lead to performance?
o Does employee perceive that certain behaviors will lead to specified outcomes?
o What values do people attach to these outcomes.
5 Techniques for improving Decision-Making
1) Creative Problem Solving (“not as important to know”)
• Attempts to change creative patterns of thinking

2) Brainstorming
• One basic goal  generate a large number of alternatives
• Successful because: Done w/o evaluating or criticizing the alternatives
• Allows people to be creative
• Allows people to take risks

3) Affinity Diagram Technique
• Special way of structuring brainstorming
• Commonly used as part of continuous improvements efforts
• Advantages:
o Promotes teamwork
o Breaks down communication barriers
o Increases group understanding
o Helps in gaining a consensus
• Highlights important interdependencies
• Focuses the team on areas of agreement
• Gives team members an = voice in specifying key ideas.

4) Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
• Individuals first brainstorm and then rank-order the ideas.
• Improved Nominal Group Technique
o Members anonymously offer ideas in writing
o Voting is secret
o Each meeting has focused agendas and is limited to 1 aspect of problem/situation
o Delays an evaluation of ideas until all alternatives are identified.
o Discussion only focuses on advantage and disadvantages
o Alternatives can be reconstructed/reworded.

5) Delphi Technique
• Structured technique that uses repeated administration of rating scales to obtain opinions about a decision.
• Uses a panel of experts
o Rarely, if ever do they actually meet face-to-face
• Involves a series of questionnaires
• Only used to solve extremely complex problems
• Yields high quality decisions
o Time consuming
o Expensive