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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Classes of Echinodermata
Crinoida, Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea
Echinodermata characteristics
Unsegmented bodies
Pentaradial symmetry
Body pentamerous
Head absent
Water-Vascular system
In all echinoderms, usually in association with madreporite
What is the structure for echinoderm movement?
Tube feet
Is the echinoderm digestive system complete?
yes, but lacking excretory organs
How do echinoderms respire?
Dermal Branchiae= Skin Gills = Papulae. Also Tube feet, respiratory tree, and Bursae
Echinoderm Nervous System?
Circumoral ring and radial nerves. The sensory system is poorly developed
do echinoderms demonstrate sexual dimorphism?
usually yes
Where does fertilization occur with Echinoderms?
Define autotomy
The self-amputation and subsequent regeneration that Echinoderms can do
Asteroidea: What is an example of one, and what phylum is it?
Example is sea star, phylum echinodermata
What are the structures of an Asteroidea's digestive system?
Mouth, Esophagus, Cardiac stomach, pyloric stomach ( pair of pyloric caecae in each arm), intestine/rectum, anus
Ophiuroidea: What phylum? What is an example of a species?
Phylum: Echinodermata
Species: Brittle star or Basket star
What is the largest class of Echinodermata?
What are the larvae of Ophiuroidea called?
Echinoidea: What phylum? what is an example of a species?
Phylum: Echinodermata
Species: Sea Urchins,Sea Biscuits, Sand Dollars
Echinoidea tests: what's up with them?
10 double rows of calcium carbonate plates, ambulacral and inter-ambulacral
What is Aristotle's Lantern?
Echinoidea mouth, Consists of 5 teeth surrounding mouth.
Echinoidea Larvae called ____?
Holothuridea: Phylum and example of species
Phylum: Echinodermata
Species: Sea Cucumber
Holothuridea oral end consists of:
mouth and retractile tentacles
Holothuroidea respiration
By respiratory tree
Holothuroidea larvae called:
The process of autotomy that some sea cucumbers (class holothuroidea) do. They eject their guts to escape predators, guts regenerate.
Crinoidea: What phylum, and give an example species.
Phylum: Echinodermata
Species:Sea Lillies, Feather stars
Are Crinoidea mostly sessile or motile?
Mostly sessile
Sea lillies: what class, and how do they move?
Class Crinoidea. They don't move, they are attached to substrate by stalk
Feather stars: What class, and are they sessile or motile?
Class Crinoidea. Feather stars are free swimming as adults
Body disc of Crinoidea. along with the arms, forms the Crown.
Calyx and Arms of Crinoidea
Line stalk, help with feeding by moving food down the arm, into mouth.
Crinoidea larvae called:
What is the Chordate:
A) Symmetry, and body segmentation
B) # of Layers of germ cells
C) Coelom development (relative)
Bilateral Symmetry
Segmented Bodies
Coelom Well developed
Chordate Circulatory System
Closed, with a ventral heart and dorsal & ventral vessels
Chordate Digestive system
Do Chordates have endo skeletons or exoskeletons
BOTH ya dingus! Some species have one or the other or both.
Characteristic features of Chordates (4)
1) Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
2) Notochord (ventral to nerve chord)
3) paired pharyngeal gill slits
4) Post-anal tail

not always expressed in adults
Describe the Chordate Nerve Chord in vertebrates and invertebrates, and how it is produced
Hollow and dorsal, anterior end forms brain. Produced by folding of ectoderm. Invertebrates: chord is ventral, solid and paired. Vertebrates: have the nerve chord in neural arches of vertebrae, and they have the solid brain surrounded by cartaligenous/bony cranium
What is a notochord?
Found in Chordates, formed from the mesoderm. Extends length of body in most chordates ( vertebrates especially, notochord replaced by cartilage/bony vertebrae
What are the paired pharyngeal slits?
Form from invagination of ectoderm, evagination of endoderm. go from pharynx to exterior. In higher vertebrates, slits do not break through pharynx
Hemichordates: Give an example of a class
What are the characteristic differences between hemichordates and chordates?
Hemichordates don't have notochord or true dorsal nerve chord
Enteropneusta Characteristics
marine, mostly worm-like
live in burrows or secreted tubes
Enteropneusta bodyplan:
Proboscis, Collar, and Trunk
Mouth located ventrally between proboscis and collar.
Enteropneusta respiration
NO gills, only gill slits bellow pharynx. gas exchange occurs internally, H2O goes in through mouth.
Enteropneusta digestive system
Complete, deposit feeders. food adheres to proboscis, then moved by cilia to mouth.
Enteropneusta circulatory system
Enteropneusta nerve chord present?
yes, in collar, sometimes hollow.
Enteropneusta reproduction
dioecious, external fertilization. Numerous paired gonads
Enteropneusta larvae called:
What is a Urochordata?
Subphylum of Phylum Chordata, also known as tunicata
What is a class of Urochordata, and an example species?
Ascidiacea, Sea squirts ( tunicates)
What class and phylum are sea squirts?
Phylum: Chordata, subphylum urachordata, class Ascidiacea
urochordata larva characteristics
Do not feed
Attach to substrate by adhesive papillae
How does a urochordate larva form into an adult?
Free-swimming larvae attach to substrate by adhesive papillae. Then, the tail is absorbed and notochord, muscles and nervous systems degenerate. Finally, respiratory, circulatory and digestive systems develop
What is the body plan of an adult Tunicate
has two siphons, 1) incurrent is called Buccal, and 2) excurrent is called atrial
What covers the body of a urachordate tunicate
Tunic (type of cellulose)
Tunicate reproduction
Monoeicious, and most can do asexual reproduction

Fertilization may be internal or external
Cephalochordata: what is it?
Subphylum of phylum chordata
Cephalochordata characteristics
Burrow into the ground and lave the anterior end protruded to filter feed
Cephalochordata feeding
Filter feed, have an oral hood with tentacles
How many openings does a cephalochordate have, and where and what are they?
3 openings. 1) mouth, anterior end, used for feeding. 2) atriopore, located mid-ventrally, where water and gametes exit. 3) anus, posterior,food leaves
Cephalochordata nervous system:
tubular chord with paired segmental nerves
Cephalochordata circulatory system:
Contract arteries, no heart
Cephalochordata reproduction:
Dioecious, numerous gonads, gametes exit via atriopore, external fertilization