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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an Organic Molecule?
Molecules that contain a carbon skeleton and some hydrogen atoms.
What is an Inorganic Molecule?
Molecules that contain carbondioxide and NO carbon.
What is a Functional Group?
They determine characteristics and chemical reactivity of the molecules.
What are Sub Units?
small organic molecules with which to synthesize larger molecules.
What are Monomers?
single/individual sub units
What are Polymers?
A long chain of monomers.
Carbon bonds with __ covalent bonds?
4 Covalent Bonds
What are Isomers?
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. (C2 H6 O)
Enantiomers are?
Mirror image of bonds.
Carbohydrates are?
Sugars, Starches, ex.- Cellulose. Means hydrate (water of) Carbon. Reflects 1:2:1 ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen.
Monosaccharides are?
Consist of one sugar molecule. Contain 3 to 7 carbon items. Glucose most abundant one.
What are Disaccharides?
"Two Sugars"
Example are: Sucrose, lactose, maltose.
What are Poltsaccharides?
"Many Sugars"
Example are: starches, glycogen, cellulose, chitin.
What are Lipids?
Heterogeneous group of compounds. Consist mainly of Carbon and Hydrogen. Some are important hormones and some are used for energy storage. soluable in nonpolar solvents, relatively insoluable in water. Important group that includes fats, phosphlipids, carotenoids.
What are Triacylglycerols (FATS)?
Most abundant lipids in living organisms. When metabolized, yield twice as much energy as carbohydrates. Carbohydrates and proteins can be transformed by enzymes into fats.
What are Fatty Acids?
Saturated fatty acids contain maxium possible number of hydrogen atomns. Unsaturated fatty acids include one or more adjacent pairs of carbon atoms joined by double bonds. Monounsaturated fatty acids contain one double bond.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids contain more than one double bond.
What are Phosphlipids?
Amphipathic lipids. Two ends differ physically and chemically. Uniquely suited to function as fundamental components of cell membranes.
What are Carotenoids?
Orange and Yellow plant pigments. Classified with lipids. Play role in photosnythesis. Consist of isoprene units. Animals convert into vitamin A.
What are Steroids?
Carbon atoms in four attached rings. Consist of Isoprene units. EX. (cholesterol, bile, salts.) Involved in regulating metabolism.
What are Proteins?
Macromolecules comnposed of amino acids. Most versatile cell components. Most enzymes are proteins. Largly determine what a cell looks like and how it functions. Joined by peptide bonds.
State the 4 levels of organization?
Primary = amino acid sequence
Secondary = results from hydrogen bonding
Tertiary = depends on interactions among side chains
Quaternary = results from interactions among polypeptides.
What are Nucleic Acids?
Transmit hereditary information. Determine what proteins a cell manufactures. Two classes found in cells : RNA, DNA.
Polymers of nucleotides.
What are some components of Nucleotides?
Five carbon sugar.
One or more Phosphate groups. Nitrogenous base of either a double ring purine or single ring pyrimidine.
What is ENERGY?
Has the capacity to do work, which is any change in the state or motion of matter. Measured as heat energy. Unit of measure is kilocalorie (kcal)
What is Potential Energy?
Capacity to do work, owing to postion or state. Chemical energy is potential energy stored in chemical bonds.
Kinetic Energy?
Energy of Motion.
A closed system.........?
Dose not exchange energy with its surroundings.
An open system...........?
Does exchange energy with its surroundings.
First Law of Thermodynamics
- energy cannot be created nor destoryed
- energy can be transferred and change in form
- Organisms cannot produce energy, but as open systems, they can capture it.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
- Entropy is continuously increasing.
-No energy tranfer is 100% efficient.
- some energy is dissipated as heat.
-Organisms maintain their organization only with input of energy from surroundings.