Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an organic molecule?
Contain carbon and hydrogen atoms. They determine structure and function of living things.
What is an inorganic molecule?
Do not contain carbon and hydrogen together; smaller molecules; can play a important role in living things.
What are the four classes of organic compound in any living thing?
Carbohydrate, lipids, proteins, nad nucleic acids
What are the four elements that make up 95% of our body weight?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
What is there about carbon that makes organic molecules so diverse and complex?
Carbon is quite small, with only a total of 6 electrons: two electrons in the first shell and four electrons in the outer shell. Carbon can bond with up to four other atoms. Shares electrons with CHNOPS.
The carbon chain of an organic molecule is called its?
Skeleton or backbone
Carbon has the ability to bond to itself makes possible carbon chains and rings which serve as backbone.
What is a functional group?
Is a specific combination of bonded atoms that always reacts in the same way, regardless of the particular carbon skeleton.
Polar and Nonpolar molecules are what type of molecules?
Polar molecules (with +/- charges) are attracted to water molecules and are hydrophilic.
Nonpolar molecules are repelled by water and do not dissolve in water and are hydrophobic.
What type of molecule is hydrocarbon?
Hydrocarbon is hydrophobic except when it has an attached ionized functional group such as carboxyl acid (--COOH); then it is hydrophilic.
What are isomers?
Molecules with identical molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms.
What are macromolecules?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids because of their large size.
What are polymers?
Macromolecule consisting of covalently bonded to monomers; for example, a polypeptide is a polymer of monomer called amino acids. Polymer gets longer as monomers bond to one another.
What are the four classes of polymers?
Polysaccharides, triglycerides, polypeptides, nucleic acids
What are some small organic molecules?
Monosaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, etc.) serve as monomers (subunits/building blocks of polymers
What is the different between organic and inorganic molecules?
Organic-always covalent
Inorganic-contain + and - ions and ionic bonding
What is the dehydration reaction?
Chemical reaction resulting in a convalent bond with the accompanying loss of water molecule. OH(Hydroxyl group) and H(hydrogen group) are removed. Water is removed (condensation) and bond made (synthesis).
What is hydrolysis reaction?
Splitting of a compound by the addition of water, with the H+ being incorporated in one fragment and the OH- in the other. Water is used to break the bond holding monomer together. Break down polymers
What is an enzyme?
Organic catalyst, usually a protein, that sppeeds a reaction in cells due to its particular shape. They are needed for these reactions.
What are carbohydrates?
Energy source in living things.
What are monosaccharides?
Are simple sugars containing 3-7 carbon atoms (plus hydrogen and oxygen)
What is glucose?
Contain six carbon atoms, is hexose. Has several isomers-Triose
Is commonly found in animals; immediate energy source to cells
What is frutose?
Is commonly found in fruit
What is Ribose and deoxyribose?
Pentose sugars; contribute to backbone of RNA and DNA
What is a disaccharide?
Contains two monosaccharides joined by condensation.
What is Lactose?
Galactose and glucose; found in milk
What is Maltose?
Two glucose molecules; forms in digestive tract of humans during starch digestion
What is Sucrose?
Fructose and glucose; transported within plant; table sugar
What are polysaccharides?
Chains of glucose molecules or modified glucose molecules. Polymer of monosaccharides.
What is starch?
Straight chain of glucose molecules; storage form for plants.
What is glycogen?
Branched chain of glucose; storage carbohydrate in animals. How we store food.
What is cellulose?
Glucose bonded to form microfibrils; plant cell walls.
What is Chitin?
Polymer with amino acid attached to each; primary constituent of crabs, lobsters and insects.
What are lipids?
Many insoluble in water because they lack polar groups.
Fat provides insulation and energy source.
Phospholipids form plasma membranes and steroids are important cell messengers
Fats and Oils contain/building blocks?
Glycerol and fatty acids
What are fatty acids?
Long hydrocarbon chain with carboxyl group at one end.
Soluble in water; usually contains 16-18 carbon atoms per molecule.
Saturated fatty acids - no double bonds between carbon atoms.
Unsaturated fatty acids - double bonds found between carbons.
What is glycerol?
Water-soluble compound with three hydroxyl groups.
What are triglycerides?
Glycerol plus three fatty acids joined by condensation synthesis.
What are fats and oils?
Fats - triglycerides containing saturated fatty acids
Oils - triglycerides with unsaturated fatty acids
What is a Saturated fatty acid?
Have no double bonds between carbon atoms.
What is a unsaturated fatty acid?
Have double bonds in the carbon chain wherever the number of hydrogens is less than two per carbon atom.
What are waxes?
Long-chain fatty acid bonded to long-chain alcohol.
Solid at room temperature; have high melting point and are waterproof and resist degradation.
Form protective covering tht retards water loss in plants, maintain animal skin and fur.
What are phospholipids?
Like triglycerides except one fatty acid is replaced by a phosphate group.
Phosphate group is polar head; hydrocarbon chains form nonpolar tails.
Phospholipids arrange themselves in double layer in water--polar heads face outward toward water and nonpolar tails face inward.
Allows them to form interface or separation between two solutions.
What are steriods?
Four fused carbon rings and vary according to attached functional groups.
What is cholesterol?
Part of animal cell’s membrane and precursor of other steroids, including aldosterone and sex hormones. Testosterone is male sex hormone.
What are the functions of proteins?
– Support - keratin (hair and nails), collagen (supports many organs)
– Enzymes - speed chemical reactions
– Transport - channel and carrier proteins in plasma membrane and hemoglobin in rbc
– Defense - antibodies that prevent infection
– Hormones
– Motion - myosin and actin in muscle
What is the building blocks of proteins?
Amino acids
What are amino acids?
Contain an acidic group (--COOH), amino group (--NH2), and an R group attached to a carbon atom.
R groups range from single hydrogen to. complicated ring compounds
Twenty different amino acids found in cells.
What are peptides?
Two or more amino acids joined together by covalent bonding.
Waht is a peptide bond?
Type of covalent bond that joins amino acids. Polarity of peptide bond permits hydrogen bonding between parts of polypeptide.
What are polypeptides?
Chains of many amino acids joined by peptid bonds.
Protein may contain more than one polypeptide chain; can have large numbers of amino acids
What does the shape of the protein do?
Determines the function in the cells and body of an organism.
What is the primary structure?
Sequence of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
• First protein sequence determined was insulin by Frederick Sanger
• Since amino acids differ by R groups, proteins differ by particular sequence of the R groups.
What is the secondary structure?
(alpha) helix discovered by Linus Pauling and Robert Corey
Hydrogen bonding occurs between the C=O of one amino acid and the N--H of another.
Hydrogen bonding between every fourth amino acid holds spiral shape of an " helix.
" helices covalently bonded by disulfide linkages between two cysteine amino acids.
B sheet is what?
Pleated B sheet polypeptides turn back on themselves; hydrogen bonding occurs between extended lengths.
B keratin includes keratin of feathers, hooves, claws, beaks, scales, and horns; silk is also protein with B sheet structure.
What is the tertiary structure?
proteins of secondary structure are folded; 3-D shape
What is the Quaternary Structure?
Two or more polypeptides combine
Hemoglobin is globular protein with a quaternary structure of 4 polypeptides
Most enzymes have quaternary structure
What is the denaturation or proteins?
Change the shape.
Both temperature and pH can change polypeptide shape - once protein loses its normal shape, it cannot perform its usual function.
Sequence of amino acids determines the protein’s final shape.
What is a nucleic acid?
Are polymers of nucleotides with very specific functions in cells.
What is the function of DNA?
(deoxyribonucleic acid) - stores genetic code for its own replication and for sequence of amino acids in proteins
What is the function of RNA?
single-stranded nucleic acid that translates the genetic doe of DNA into the amino acid sequence of proteins
What is a nucleotide?
may act as coenzymes; ATP (used to supply energy); and as building blocks for nucleic acids
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
Nucleotides composed of phosphate, pentose sugar, and nitrogen-containing base (A,G,C,T, or U)
What are differences between RNA and DNA?
Nucleotides of DNA contain deoxyribose sugar; RNA contains ribose sugar.
In RNA, base uracil occurs instead of base thymine.
DNA is double-stranded with complementary base pairing forming double helix; RNA is single-stranded.
What is ATP?
A nucleotide in which adenosine is composed of adenine and ribose.
What does ATP do?
– Three phosphates are attached to five-carbon portion of molecule
– High-energy molecule because last two unstable phosphate bonds are easily broken producing energy and forming ADP
– Supplies energy for synthetic reactions