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57 Cards in this Set

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Lucas test
Used to distinguish between a primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols.
-- primary alcohol and phenols will have no reaction.
-- secondary alcohols will form a white layer after 10 minutes of heat.
-- tertiary alcohols will form an immediate white layer.
-- ketones and aldehydes have no reaction.
What are some differences between alcohols and phenol?
- Phenol is an OH group on an aromatic ring.
- Phenols are acidic while alcohols are not.
- Phenols are much more toxic.
- Phenols yield a purple color change in the Iron (III) Cl test while alcohols have no change.
Chromic acid test
Used to distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols.
-- primary alcohols turn blue-green
-- secondary alcohols turn blue-green
-- tertiary alcohols have no reaction
-- phenols yield a brown, tarry mass
-- aldehydes turn blue-green
-- ketones have no reaction
Iodoform test
Used to distinguish phenols and ethyl alcohols or methyl ketones.
-- only secondary/ethyl alcohols will produce a yellow ppt
-- primary alcohols, tertiary alcohols and aldehydes will not react
-- phenols will produce a yellow ppt
-- methyl ketones will produce a yellow ppt
Which will dissolve in a basic solution? Alcohols, phenols, both? Why?
Phenols are acidic and will dissolve in a basic solution. Alcohols are not acidic and will not dissolve in a basic solution.
Iron (III) Cl test
Used to distinguish between alcohols and phenols.
-- Phenols turn a green - purple color
-- Alcohols, aldehydes and ketones do not react.
What is a functional group?
An atom or group of atoms within a molecule that shows a characteristic set of chemical and physical properties.
What makes many alcohols water soluble?
The presence of the polar hydroxyl group which is able to form hydrogen bonds.
Which would react with a base and why? primary alcohol, secondary alcohol, tertiary alcohol or a phenol
The phenol because it is acidic.
Name the color test that is specific for phenol and what is the reaction?
Iron (III) Cl test, phenols turn a green-purple color.
When would formation of a derivative be a necessary step?
Specific aldehydes and ketones cannot be determined using the 2,4 DNP test, just their presence. Derivatives are formed when you want to identify a specific aldehyde or ketone.
2,4 DNP test
Used to distinguish aldehydes and ketones from alcohols.
-- Aldehydes and ketones give a yellow - red ppt
-- Alcohols and phenols have no reaction
Tollen's test
Used to distinguish aldehydes from other compounds.
-- Aldehydes will yield a 'silver mirror'
-- All other compounds will have no reaction
What is the active agent in aspirin?
salicylic acid
Why can't salicylic acid be taken without being made into an ester?
salicylic acid is too harsh for the mouth, esophagus and stomach due to the phenol group and carboxyl group.
What two compounds form aspirin?
salicylic acid and acetic anhydride
What is acetylsalicyclic acid?
Aspirin
How do buffering agents mitigate the harmful effects of aspirin?
They neutralize the acid.
In the aspirin lab, why is cold water added to the solution and the flask placed in a cold water bath prior to filtering it?
The water added to the solution destroys the remaining unreacted acetic anhydride and causes the insoluble aspirin to precipitate from the solution.
A student expected 1g of product in the aspirin lab but ended up with 1.65g. Why could this be?
It could be excess water or excess ethyl acetate.
What does it mean in the aspirin lab when you test your finished product with Iron (III) Cl and get a purple result?
It indicates the presence of phenols which means some salicylic acid remains and the product is not pure aspirin.
Why does old aspirin smell like vinegar?
The acetylsalicylic acid mixes with the humid air (H2O) and converts to salicylic acid + acetic acid (vinegar).
Why are the aspirin crystals rinsed with ethanol / ethyl acetate?
To dehydrate the product.
What physical attribute can we use to differentiate carboxylic acids from esters?
Carboxylic acids smell sour and esters smell sweet.
What is esterification?
Reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol yielding an ester.
Are carboxylic acids soluble in water?
Only slightly.
How do carboxylic acids react with bases?
They react to form water soluble salts.
What is saponification?
The base-promoted decomposition of esters to yield an alcohol and a salt of carboxylic acid.
What type of reaction occurs and what product results when an ester is treated with an aqueous acid?
A hydrolysis reaction. Hydrolysis of an ester yields a carboxylic acid and an alcohol - the reverse of esterification.
What is the general composition of a soap?
The sodium salt of a fatty acid.
How could you separate the mixture of two solids: an aromatic hydrocarbon and benzoic acid?
- Add NaOH to convert the benzoic acid to a soluble salt
- Filter the aromatic hydrocarbon to isolate
- Reacidify the filtrate, recreating the benzoic acid
- Filter to isolate
A component of a molecule that gives rise to stereoisomerism. There is often a carbon atom attached to four distinct groups.
stereocenter
Isomers that are not constitutional isomers. These differ in the spatial arrangement of atoms.
stereoisomer
Molecules without a plane of symmetry.
chiral molecules
Molecules with a plane of symmetry, optically inactive, that do not rotate plane-polarized light.
achiral molecules
Stereoisomers that are not enantiomers.
diastereomers
Stereoisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images.
enantiomers
A compound that contains multiple stereocenters but is achiral due to an internal plane of symmetry.
meso
In general, for a given stereocenter, an ___-numbered exchange of groups leads to the mirror image of that center; an ___-numbered exchange of groups leads back to the original system.
In general, for a given stereocenter, an odd-numbered exchange of groups leads to the mirror image of that center; an even-numbered exchange of groups leads back to the original system.
What are the three classifications of carbohydrates?
- monosaccharide
- disaccharide
- polysaccharide
Define carbohydrate:
They are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones or compounds that yield polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones upon hydrolysis.
Explain the structure of a monosaccharide:
A cyclic structure containing hemiacetal groups.
Explain the structures of di- and polysaccharides:
Cyclic structures containing functional groups such as hydroxyl groups, acetal groups, and hemiacetal groups.
What is the difference between a reducing and non-reducing carbohydrate?
Reducing carbohydrates have a hemiacetal functional group and can reduce solutions such as Fehling's reagent. Non-reducing carbohydrates have acetals as the functional group and must undergo hydrolysis to break the glycosidic links to create hemiacetals (reducing ends).
How many monosaccharide units does a starch have?
2,000 - 10,000
What is an emulsion?
A solution where one liquid is dispersed in the form of finely suspended particles or droplets in another liquid.
How does soap work?
The nonpolar hydrophobic end attaches to the greasy dirt while the polar hydrophilic end dissolves into the water, allowing the entire mess to be washed away.
Why does soap become ineffective in hard water?
The Ca2+ and/or Mg2+ in hard water replaces the Na+ atom on the soap molecule rendering it ineffective.
What happens if soap is put in an acidic solution?
It is converted to free fatty acids and loses its cleansing properties.
What is "salting out"?
A saturated NaCl solution is added to the soap mixture. This increases the density of the aqueous solution, allowing the soap to more easily float out of the solution.
How could you reduce the basicity of your soap?
- Rinse with more water to wash away extraneous substances
- Add a buffer to the soap
Define zwitterion:
A compound that contains both + and - charges and behaves as both an acid and a base.
How do you determine the pK value of the carboxylic acid group?
It is the midpoint of leg 1 on the graph.
How do you determine the pK of the amino group?
It is the midpoint of leg 3 on the graph.
How do you calculate the Ka?
Ka=10^-pK
How can zwitterions act as buffers?
By either adding a H+ or an OH- as needed.
What function did the HCl serve in the vitamin C titration?
It acted as a catalyst to speed the reaction up.