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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
_______ are easily oxidized to yield ______ _____, but ________ are generally inert toward oxidation.
Aldehydes, carboxylic acids
Esters can be partially reduced to yield aldehydes by using:
1. diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAH), toluene, -78 deg. Celsius
2. H3O+
A Grignard reagent adds to the carbonyl oxygen of an aldehyde or ketone, making the carbonyl group a better _______.
The systematic name for methanal is:
For cyclic aldehydes in which the -CHO group is directly attached to a ring, the suffix ______ is used.
The systematic name for ethanal is:
A neutral amino alcohol is called a ______
The systematic name for benzencarbaldehyde is:
Imines are often called ____ _____ in many biological pathways.
Schiff bases
A nitrile (R-C(triplebond)N) can be reduced with LiAlH4 to yield a ______ _______ and can be hydrolyzed by hot aqueous acid to yield a _______ ______.
primary amine, carboxylic acid
Two methods of aldehyde synthesis include:
oxidation of primary alcohols and oxidative cleavage of alkenes
Ketones are named by replacing the terminal -e of the corresponding alkane with ____.
Addition of hydride ion to aldehydes or ketones yields _____.
Ketones undergo a slow cleavage reaction when treated with:
1.KMnO4 in H2O and NaOH
2. H3O+
Aldehyde oxidations occur through intermediate ______ or _______, which are formed by a reversible nucleophilic addition of water to the carbonyl group.
Methyl ketones are prepared by hydration of terminal alkynes with the reagents:
H3O+ in HgSO4
Aldehydes and ketones react reversibly with ___________________ to yield acetals (R2C(OR')2), called ketals if derived from ketones.
2 equivalents of an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst
Ozonolysis of alkenes yields ketones (if one of the unsaturated carbon atoms is disubstituted) using the reagents:
1. O3
2. Zn/H3O+
Aldehydes and ketones react with water in a reversible reaction to produce ____, or _____ diols
Primary alcohols can be oxidized into aldehydes by using:
PCC (pyridinium chlorochromate) in CH2Cl2
Aldehydes and unhindered ketones undergo a nucleophilic addition reaction with HCN to yield ______.
cyanohydrins, RCH(OH)C(triplebond)N
Reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a secondary amine yields an _____, while reaction with a secondary amine yields an _______.
imine, enamine
Aldehydes are named by replacing the terminal -e of the corresponding alkane name with:
Secondary alcohols can be oxidized by a variety of reagents such as ______ and ______ to give ketones.
PCC (pyridinium chlorochromate) in CH2Cl2
Aldehydes can be oxidized by ______ _____ without harming carbon-carbon double bonds or other acid-sensitive functional groups in a molecule.
Tollens' reagent (Ag2O) (in NH4OH and H2O)
Secondary amines (R2NH) add to aldehydes and ketones to yield _____.
enamines (R2N-CR=CR2)
Alkenes with at least one vinylic hydrogen undergo oxidative cleavage when treated with:
1. O3 (ozone)
2. Zn, CH3CO2H
The Wolff-Kishner reaction involves treatment of an aldehyde or ketone with ______________________ to produce an alkane.
hydrazine (H2NNH2) in the presence of KOH.
Aryl ketones are prepared by _________ acylation of an aromatic ring with an acid chloride in the presence of ______.
Friedel-Crafts, AlCl3/heat
The _____-catalyzed hydration reaction of water to an aldehyde or ketone begins with the nucleophilic hydroxide ion attacking the electrophilic carbonyl carbon, whereas the _____-catalyzed hydration reaction begins with protonation of the carbonyl oxygen atom.
base, acid