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24 Cards in this Set

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Hydrocarbons
Compounds with only carbon and hydrogen
Alkanes
Hydrocarbons with only single (sigma) bonds, also known as saturated hydrocarbons
Alkenes
Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain double bonds
Alkynes
Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain triple bonds
Hydrocarbon rings
Rings instead of chains, one class is the aromatic hydrocarbons (ex. benzene, C6H6)
Alcohols
Replace hydrogen with hydroxyl group (OH), makes compound polar and able to form hydrogen bonds, so more soluble in water
Organic acids
Replace hydrogen with carboxyl group (COOH)
-anoic acid
Halides
Replace hydrogen(s) with halide
Ex:
Chloromethane
Fluoroethane
Bromopropane
Iodobutane
Amines
Replace hydrogen with amino group (NH2)
Aminomethane
Aldehydes
Contains carbonyl group connected to at least one hydrogen
Methanal (formaldehyde)
Ketone
Contains carbonyl group not connected to hydrogen atoms
Propanone
Ethers
Oxygen links two parts of hydrocarbon chain
Methoxymethane=dimethyl ether
Esters
Ester group (COO) links two parts of hydrocarbon chain, formed in a reaction between an alcohol and an organic acid
Methyl methanoate
Isomers
Two or more molecules with the same molecular formula, but different arrangements of atoms and different chemical properties
Numbering
Start from carbon closest to divergent group
Cis

Trans
Both on same side of molecule

Different sides of molecule
Addition
Carbon-carbon double bond broken down into single bond, freeing two carbons to bond with another element, or triple bond converted to double bond
Substitution
One atom or group replaced with another atom or group
Polymerization
Two smaller compounds, called monomers, are joined to form a much larger third compound
Condensation polymerization
Two monomers joined, produce water
Cracking
Larger compound broken into smaller compounds
Oxidation
Reacts with oxygen at high temperatures to form carbon dioxide and water (combustion, burning)
Esterification
Organic acid reacts with alcohol to produce an ester and water
Fermentation
Organic compound reacts in the absence of water to produce an alcohol and carbon dioxide