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31 Cards in this Set

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Index of Hydrogen Deficiency
the number of pairs of hydrogens a compund requires in order to become a saturated alkane

((2n+2) - x)/2
n= # of Carbons
x = # of Hydrogens
Electrostatic force
force between electrons and the nuclei that creates all molecular bonds
When are electrons at their lowest energy?
When they are in a bond because they have minimized their distance from both nuclei
Coordinate covalent bond
one nucleus donates both electrons
sigma-bond
bonding pair of electrons are localized directly between the two bonding atoms

has the lowest energy and is the most stable form of covalent bond

single bond
pie-bond
orbitals formed above and below the sigma bond forming a double bond and to the sides of the sigma bond forming a triple bond

makes molecules planar because it stops rotation

electrons are further from the nuclei so they are at a higher energy level and thus less stable so the bond is weaker
What elements commonly form pie bonds?
carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur
Hybridizations-Bond Angles-Shape
sp-180-linear

sp2-120-trigonal planar

sp3-109.5-tetrahedral, pyramidal, or bent

dsp3-90,120-trigonal-bipyramidal, seesaw, t-shaped, linear

d2sp3-90-octahedral, square pyramidal, square planar
More S character
more stable, stronger and shorter bond
Bond angle
strained by lone pairs and pie electrons
delocalized electrons
only form from pie bonds

enable resonance structures
Huckel's rule
planar monocyclic rings with 4n + 2pie-electrons should be aromatic
Aromatic
displaying resonance
dipole moment
occurs when the center of a positive charge on a molecule or bond does not coincide with the center of a negative charge
Polar bond
resulting from the difference in electronegativity of its atoms

may or may not create a dipole moment
Hydrogen bond
occurs with N, O, or F

strongest type of dipole-dipole interaction
London Dispersion Forces
weakest type of dipole-dipole force

force between two instantaneous dipoles
High bond energy
indicates a bond with electrons at very low energy and is therefore a stable bond
Gas
carbon chain with 4 or fewer carbons
isomers
unique molecules with the same molecular formula
conformational isomers (conformers)
different spatial orientations or rotations of the SAME molecule
Structural Isomers
same molecular formula but different bond connectivity
chiral molecules
Differ from their reflections

Any molecule bonded to 4 different substituents
Priority in Configuration
highest atomic weights
Absolute Configuration
1. Number substituents based on atomic weight
2. turn lowest priority away frmo you
3. draw a circle from highest to lowest priority

R = clockwise
S = counterclockwise
Stereoisomers
two molecules with the same molecular formula and the same bond-to-bond connectivity that are not the same compound

either enantiomers or diastereomers
Enantiomers
non-identical mirror images

opposite absolute configurations at each chiral carbon

rotate plane polarized light in opposite directions

same chemical and physical characteristics
Racemic mixtures
equal mix of stereoisomers

do not rotate plane polarized light
Resolution
the separation of enantiomers
Diastereomers
same molecular formula, same bond connectivity, not mirror images, not the same compound
Geometric isomers
diastereomers created by hinderince in a rotation about a bond

different physical properties

ex cis and tran