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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Combustion in alkanes yields
CO2 and H2O
Halogenation of alkanes yields
Carbon with the halogen and hyrdogen with the extra halogen
In an addition reaction with alkenes or alkynes you...
Break down the double or triple bond
In an elimination reaction you...
Put the double or triple bond back in.
In a substitution reaction like

AB + C yields...
AC + B
Rearrangement reaction yields...
An isomer of the reactant
Hydrogenation of an alkene or alkyne yields...
Hydrogen is used to form an alkane however, with alkynes you need more moles of hydrogen to break the triple bond.
Halogenation of alkenes use what reactant and yield what?
Use Br2 or Cl2 and yield a Dibromo or Dichloro alkane!
Hydrohalogenation of alkenes uses what reactant and yields what?
Uses HCl or HBr to yield an alkyl halide.
Hydration of an alkene uses what reactant and yields what?
An alcohol...HOWEVER...need to use MARKOVNIKOV'S rule to decide where the OH group bonds and where the H bonds.
Markovnikov's rule is...
The OH group bonds to the carbon with the lesser hydrogens bonded to it, and the hydrogen bonds to the carbon with the most hyrdrogens on it.
The nitration reaction of a benzene uses what reactant and yields what?
Uses NO3H and yields a nitro(NO2)benzene and water.
Halogenation of a benzene uses what reactant and yields what?
Uses a Cl2 or something like that and yields a Chlorobenzene(X-) and HCl(only in the case of Cl2)
Sulfonation of benzenes use what reactant and yield what?
Uses SO3 and yields a Benzene sulfonic acid with a SO3H bonded to the ring.
Dehydration of an alcohol uses what reactant/catalyst and yields what?
Uses H2SO4 and yields and alkene and water. Put double bond on the adjacent carbon with more hydrogens on it!
Oxidation of alcohols uses what reactant/catalyst to yield what if its a primary, a primary with excess, and a secondary?
Uses an oxidizing agent [O]. A primary alcohol yields an aldehyde. A secondary alcohol yields a ketone. A primary alcohol with excess [O] yields a carboxylic acid.
Benzenes do NOT react with?
H2 with Pd, Br2, HCl, and H3O+.
A phenol is..
A benzene with a hydroxy group branched off it.
A toluene is...
A benzene with a methyl group branching off it.
A analine is...
A benzene with NH2 branching off it.
Para-Xylene is...
A Benzene with two methyl groups in the 1,4 positions.
A Benzoic acid is...
A benzene with a carboxylic acid branching off it.
Benzaldehyde is...
A benzene with an aldehyde group branching off it.
Properties of alkenes...
Nonpolar; insoluble in water
cis-trans isomerism
chemically reactive
Properties of alkanes...
Nonpolar;insoluble in water
Less dense than water
Not very reactive