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22 Cards in this Set

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isotopes
members of the same element and therefore the same amount of protons but with differing amount of neutrons/masses
orbital
an allowed energy level that an electron resides in
node
a region in an orbital with zero electron density
degenerate orbitals
orbitals with the same energies but different orientations like the different p orbitals (x,y,z)
valence electrons
The electrons in the outer orbitals that are available for binding
ionic binding
when two atoms interact by the complete exchange of electrons
covalent bonding
bonding that arises from the sharing of electrons so that both members will have stable electron octects
Lewis Structures
Detailed structure of a molecule indicating the lone pairs of electrons and the different bonds between atoms
non-bonding electrons
electrons that are not involved with bonding
single bond
connection of 2 electrons
double bond
sharing of 4 electrons
polar bond
a bond between two atoms of different electronegativities, creating an imbalance of electron density
formal charges
a method for keeping track of electrons, showing what charge would be on an atom
resonance forms
the different arrangements of electrons, that when combined illustrate the overall electron spread/appearance throughout the molecule
molecular formula
The exact number of each element that make up a molecule
empirical formula
The basic ratio of the different elements that make up a molecule
Arrhenius Acid and Base
Acid: Creates H3O+ in water
Base: Creates OH- in water
Bronsted-Lowry acid and Base
Acid: Donates Protons
Base: Accepts Protons
Lewis Acid and Base
Acid: accepts electron pairs (electrophile)

Base: donates electron pairs
(nucleophile)
electrophile
accepts electron pairs (acid)
nucleophile
donates electron pairs (base)
What determines the relative acidity or basicity between two molecules
Size - the larger atom will beable to handle the negative charge better

# of resonance structures

More electronegative atoms will appreciate more electrons