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37 Cards in this Set

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atoms w/ the same number of protons but diff number of neutrons
isotopes
allowed energy state for an electron bound to a nucleus
orbital
region in an orbital w/ zero election density
node
orbitals w/ identical energies
degenerate orbitals
electrons in the outermost shell
valence electrons
occurs by the attraction of oppositely charged ions, resulting in the formation of a large, 3D crystal lattice
ionic bonding
occurs by the sharing of electrons in the region btw 2 nuclei
covalent bonding
structural formula that shows all valence electrons, w/ the bonds symbolized by dashes or by pairs of dots, nonbonding electrons symbolized by dots
lewis structure
valence electrons that are not used for bonding, lone pair
nonbonding electrons
covalent bond that involves the sharing of one pair of electrons
single bond
covalent bond that involves the sharing of two pairs of electrons
double bond
covalent bond that involves the sharing of three pairs of electrons
triple bond
covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally
polar bond
method for keeping track of charges, showing what charge would be on an atom in a particular lewis structure
formal charges
molecule for which two or more lewis structures can be drawn, differing only in placement of valence electrons
resonance forms
number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a compound
molecular formula
ratios of atoms in a compound
empirical formula
acid dissociates in water to give H3O+, base dissociates in water to give -OH
arrhenius acid and base
acid is a proton donor, base is a proton acceptor
bronsted-lowry acid and base
acid is electron-pair acceptor, base is electron-pair donor
lewis acid and base
electron-pair acceptor
electrophile
electron-pair donor
nucleophile
places a large amount of electron density in the bonding region between the nuclei, energy of an electron here is lower than an atomic orbital
bonding MO
places most of the electron density outside the bonding region, energy of electron here is higher than it is in an atomic orbital
antibonding MO
directional orbital formed from a combination of s and p orbitals on the same atom
hybrid atomic orbital
most of its electron density is centered along the line joining the nuclei
sigma bond
bond formed by sideways overlap of two p orbitals, electron density in two lobes, one above and one below the line joining the nuclei
pi bond
bond containing 4 eletrons between 2 nuclei, 1 pair forms a sigma bond, 1 pair forms a pi bond
double bond
bond containing 6 electrons between 2 nuclei, 1 pair of electrons forms a sigma bond and the other 2 pairs form 2 pi bonds
triple bond
atoms are connected differently, differ in bonding sequence
constitutional isomers
differ in arrangement on a ring or double bond
cis-trans isomers
differ only in how their atoms are oriented in space
stereoisomers
measure of the polarity of an individual bond in a molecule
bond dipole moment
vector sum of the bond dipole moments in a molecule
molecular dipole moment
attractive intermolecular forces resulting from the attraction of the positive and negative ends of the molecular dipole moments of polar molecules
dipole-dipole forces
intermolecular forces resulting from the attraction of correlated temporary dipole moments induced in adjacent molecules
London forces
strong attraction between a nonbonding pair of electrons and an electrophilic hydrogen
hydrogen bonding