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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hammond postulate
Related species (on a reaction diagram) that are closer in energy are also closer in structure.
Inductive effect
A donation or withdrawal of electron density through sigma bond
radical inhibitor
A compound added to prevent the propagation of free radical chain reactions
rate limiting step
slowest step in a multistep sequence of reactions. In general, the rate-limiting step is the step iwth the highest-energy transition state (p. 142)
resonance stablilzation
Stabilization that takes place by delocalization of electrons in a pi-bonded system. Cations, radicals, and anions are often stabilized by resonance delocalization (p. 156)
A reaction which one atom replaces another, usually as a substituent on a carbon atom (p. 126)
Transition state
the state of highest energy between reactant and products. A relative maximum on the reaction-energy diagram. (p. 140)
absolute configeration
the detailed stereochemical picture of a molecule, including how the atoms are arranged in space. Alternatively, the (R) or (S) configuation at each asymmetric carbon atom (p. 201)
Cahn-Ingold-prelog convention
The accepted method for designation the absolute configuration of a chirality center as either R or S (p.175)
Cis-trans isomers
Isomers that differ in their geometric arrangemnt on a ring or double bond. Cis-trans isomers are a subclass of diastereomers (p. 196)
structures that differ only by rotations about single bonds. In most cases, conformers interconvert at room temperature, thus, they are not different compounds and not true isomers.
constitutional isomers
isomers that differ in the order in which their atoms are bonded together
D-L configurations
D has the same relative configuration as (+)-glyceraldehyde. L has the same relative configuration as (-)-glyceraldehyde. p.202
enantiomeric excess
The excess of one enantiomer in a mixture of enantiomers expressed as a percentage of the mixture. Similar to optical purity (p. 186)
A pair of non superimposable mirror image molecules: mirror image isomers.
geometric isomers
Different compounds with the same molecular formula (p. 191)
meso compound
An achiral compound that contains chirality centers (usually asymmetric carbon atoms)p. 199
optical isomers
compounds with identical properties except for the direction in which they rotate polarized light p. 180