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28 Cards in this Set

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Nucleus
Largest; gentetic control center; DNA
nuclear envelope
defines boundary two parallel membranes
nuclear pore
complex of proteins in a ring, regulate traffic in/out of nucleus, binds envelope
Chromosomes
DNA and protein
-22 pairs + sex chromosomes = 46 chromosomes
chromatin
chromosomes & related protein
Nucleolus
ribosomes manufactured
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Little network w/in cytoplasm that forms a series of envelopes and tubes (cristernae)
-cisternae
-rough ER
-Smooth ER
-ribosomes
Ribosomes
-Translation
-Move along mRNA and builds one amino acid at a time
-20 distince amino acids in most life forms
Cristernae
A fluid filled space or sac where protein is sent and modified by enzymes
RER
-Cristernae are parallel and flattened
-Ribosomes bound
-proteins and phospholipids migrate into cisternae
-enzymes modify and trim protein to be sent out of cell
SER
-No ribosomes
-NO protein synthesis
-Produce lipids and steroids
-Abundant detoxifying tissues
-drug and alchohol breakdown
-Skeletal and cardiac muscle
Golgi Apparatus
Small system of cisternae that synthesize carbs and put the primary touches on protein and glycoprotein synthesis.
Golgi "Cis"
recieves vesicles from ER
Golgi "trans"
releases vesicles with modified proteins
Lysosomes
membrane bound sacs that contain digestive enzymes to break down proteins, carbs, and fats
-Apoptosis: programmed cell death
Peroxisomes
Neutralize "free radicals" and detoxify alchohol and other drugs.
-Important for maintaining integrity of cell's DNA, lipids and proteins
Mitochondria
Power plant
-specialized for ATP production
-Have cristae
Cristae
Bear enzymes that produce most of the ATP
Mitochodrial matrix
Space between the cristae. Contains enzymes, ribosomes, and mDNA
Centrioles
barrel-shaped, lie perpendicular to each other.
-Microtubules in centrioles are stable and do not disassemble
Centrosome
spherical structure near nucleus
-no membranes and pair of centrioles
-mitotic spindles radiate from here
Cell Cycle Interphase
3 sub-phases: G1, S, & G2
G1 Phase
-Protein synthesis
-Growth rapidly
-If cells in G1 permanently = G0 stage
S phase
-DNA Replication
-46 Chromosomes -> 92
-2 identical sets
G2 phase
Brief Phase
-Enzyme synthesized
-Centrioles finish copying themselves
M Phase: Cell Division
2 distinct steps
Mitosis
Division of the Nucleus
-chromosomes are very thick and has four phases
1.Prophase
2.Metaphase
3.Anaphase
4.Telephase
Cytookinesis
Division of entire cell into 2 daughter cells
-begins during anaphase and is completed after mitosis ends. A ring of contractile actin and mysosin filaments in the center of the original cell pinches the cell into two. The two new cells are called daughter cells.