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19 Cards in this Set

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Carbanions are stabilized by what?
Either electronegative substituent groups or by resonance with electrons.
(T/F) It is highly unfavorable for electronegative species such as oxygen to bear a formal positive charge.
True.
What is less soluble in water, an alkane/alkene/alkyne or ketone or ether?
alkane/alkene/alkyne
Which is more stable, 1,3 petadiene or 1,3,5-hexatriene?
1,3,5-hexatriene b/c it has three bonds in cmoplete conjugation.
What is an amide?
organic compounds in which an amine functionality is directly bonded to a carbonyl carbon.
What kinds of species can usuallyl form zitterions?
amopteric species such as amino acids.
Amino group (NH2) acts as a lewis acid or base?
lewis base
What is the special property of zwitterions?
thyre have strong intermolecular attractions due to ionic and hydrogen bonding ==> provides for high bp/mp (?) relative to MW.
Longer alkanes experience strong ____?
Van Der Waals forces.
Is melting point dictated by the same characteristics that determine boiling point? If so what?
Yes. They're dictated by: intermolecular attraction, weight and geometry.
Which has a higher boiling point: cis- or trans-1,2-dichloroethene?
The bp of the cis isomer is higher b/c it has a net dipole moment.
What are the difference btw enantiomers and diastereomers?
Diastereomers are stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other;
Enantioemrs are mirror image isomers.
What are racemates?
enantiomeric pairs.
Which one will have a higher mp: a compound that has a carboxylic acid or hydroxyl group?
carboxylic acid b/c it also has a polar carbonyl bond which serves to increase intermolecular attractions.
What is a cyano functional group?
C triple bonded to N
(T/F) Meso compounds are a special case of stereoisomers which occur when a molecule has two achiral centers and each achiral center has identical substituants.
False, they have two CHIRAL centers.
What are capable of hydrogen bonding?
Hydrogen thats been bonded to F, O, or N... or any electronegatige atom.
Is NH2CH3 capable of hydrogen bonding?
Yes, but it H is connected to N. But if it was a tertiary amine, than no.
(T/F) Ethene has both carbon atoms sp2 hybridized and the molecule is planar.
True; Three attached groups ==> will be arranged in a planar configuration roughly 120 deg apart, since that will minimize the electron-pair repulsion.