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78 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Leader Emergence
study of the characteristics of individuals who become leaders, examining the basis on which they were appointed, or simply accepted
Leader Effectiveness
study of which behaviors on the part of a designated leader (regardless of how it was achieved) led to an outcome valued by the work group or organization
Problems with measuring/studying leadership
-in what period should they be studied..
-leader's behavior is not always immediate or detectable
the individual in a group given the task of directing task-relevant group activities or, in the absence of a designated leader, carries the primary responsibility for performing these actions
specified position with ASSIGNED leadership tasks. Does not imply leadership. Leadership is HOW the tasks are carried out with respect to the work group.
Leader Development
concentrates on developing, maintaining, or enhancing individual leader attributes such as knowledge, skills, and abilities
Leadership Development
concentrates on the leader-follower relationship and on developing an environment in which the leader can build relationships that enhance cooperation and resource exchange
Trait Theories
attempt to show that leaders posess certain chatacteristics that non-leaders do not
Power Approach
examines the types of power weilded by leaders
Reward Power (power approach)
the potential of a supervisor to mediate or dispense valued rewards
Coercive Power (power apporach)
the potential of a supervisor to mediate or dispense punishments
Legitimate Power (power approach)
the "right" of a supervisor to influence a subordinate and the obligation of the subordinate to accept that influence
Referent Power (power approach)
the identification of the subordinate with the supervisor, the power of example
Expert Power (Power approach)
the knowledge or expertise thata supervisor has in a special area
Behavioral Approach
begun by researchers at Ohio State U; focused on the kinds of behavior engaged in by people in leadership roles and identified two major types: consideration and initiating structure
Consideration (OH Behavioral)
included behavior indicating mutual trust, respect, and a certain warmth and rapport between supervisor and group
Initiating Structure (OH Behavioral)
included behavior in which the supervisor organizes and defines group activities and his relation to the group
Task Oriented Behavior (Mich Studies)
identified by U of M researchers as an important part of a leader's activities; similar to initiating structure from OSU
Relations-Oriented Behavior (Mich Studies)
identified by U of M researchers as an important part of a leader's activities; similar to OSU's consideration model
Participative Behavior (Much Studies)
unique to U of M, concluded that effective leaders expended considerable energy in interacting with teh group as a whole
Fiedlers Contingency Theory
-Leader effectiveness is a function of:
-characteristics of the leader
-features of the situation
Fiedler's Contingency Theory
Task oriented, relationship oriented leaders
Fiedler's Contingency Theory
Some situations are more favorable than others depending on:
-leader-member relations
-task structure
-position of power
Fiedler's Contingency Theory
Style/Orientation of leader:
-least preferred coworker scale
Path-Goal Theory
based on expectancy theory (providing valuable, obtainable rewards will get people to work hard for you)
Path-Goal Theory
Leadership Styles:
-directive behavior (goal clarification)
-achievement-oriented (encouraging behavior)
-supportive behavior (emotional support)
- participative behavior (mentoring, guiding, coaching)
Vroom-Yetton Model
suggested that although a participation style might contribute to the satisfaction of group members, under certain circumstances, it could lead to a poor decision
LMX Theory
Leader Member Exchange
LMX Theory
leader can have different exchanges with different members
-dyads-groups of 2 members
-style varies across subordinates
- creates in-groups and out-groups
LMX Theory
Issues in leader-subordinate relationship:
-similarity (gender)
-number of subordinates
self efficacy (LMX)
if a subordinate is rated high enough on self-efficacy, the leader is rated on having a high quality relationship with them
Transformational Leaders
-vs. transactional leaders
Transformational Leaders
Leadership Strategies:
-idealized influence
-inspirational motivation
-intellectual stimulation
-individualized consideration
Charismatic Leaders
Likeableness, control and respect in leadership
Charismatic Leaders
Leaders are able to hypnotize followers into following
Charismatic Leaders
-need for power
-incredibly confident
-impress followers
-have appealing visions
-set high goals and express confidence
-excellent communication, inspire through speeches and writing
communicating over a distance, phone,email,etc.
Temporary Workers
companies hire temporary consultants to fix a problem
Gender and Leadership
lab-men are more task oriented, women are more relationship oriented
Gender and Leadership
Field Studies-no relationship
Gender and Leadership
NO evidence supporting which sex makes a more effective leader
Globe (culture and leadership)
-study leadership traits which are generally effective
-transformational leadership and leaders with charisma are most effective
Quality Circle
work group arrangement that typically involves 6 to 12 employees who meet regularly to ID work-related problems and generate ideas to increase productivity or product quality
Project Teams
created to solve a particular problem, temporary group, members from different fields
Production Teams
self-managed work team who are on the frontline of manufacturing, self managed work teams have control over everything that they do, tasks, labor, hiring, performance, appraisals
Virtual Team
dispersed team who have to work together from different locations, saves time, sometimes barriers
Why teams are on the rise
during the past decade, the use of teams has increased dramatically
why are teams on the rise
-"old" organizational structures can be too slow, too unresponsive, and too expensive to be competitive
-work teams can yeild quality, productivity, and cost improvements
-workers can benefit from increased autonomy and empowerment
proposed by Max Weber in the 1940's to be the ideal form of organization; included a formal heirarchy; division of labor, and clear set of operating procedures
Division of Labor (weber)
dividing the performance of tasks in an organization into specialized jobs and departmental functions
Delegation of Authority (weber)
which refers to information about which lower-level employees report to higher level employees in an organization
Structure (weber)
refers to the formal way an organization is designed in terms of division of labor, delegation of authority, span of control; the levels of an org
Span of Control (weber)
refers to the number of positions of people who report to a single individual, that is, the width of the org
Human Relations Theory
adds a personal or human element to the study of organizations; considers the interrelationship between an organization's requirements and the characteristics of its members
Theory X (McGregor)
developed to describe the contrasting beliefs that managers hold about their subordinates; managers believe subordinates must be controlled to meet org ends
Theory Y (McGregor)
managers believe subordinates would be motivated to meet goals in the absence of organizational controls
Contingency Theories
propose that the best way to structure an organization depends on the circumstances of the org
recognized that the technology employed in a particular company or industry could influence the most effective design for the org.
Small Batch orgs (woodward's types)
produce specialty product one at a time
Large batch and mass production orgs (woodward's types)
produce large numbers of discrete units- assembly-line operations
Continuous process orgs (woodward's types)
depends on a continuous process for output or product including orgs such as refineries, chem plants, and distilleries
Resource Theory (recent ways to study Org Development)
an org must be viewed in the context of its connections to other organizationsl the key to org survival is the ability to acquire and maintain resources
Evolutional/Ecological approach (recent ways to study Org Development)
adopts a biological model and concentrates on explaining why some types of orgs thrive and diversify, while others atrophy and disappear
a shared perception among employees regarding their work entity: a particular org ,division, department, or work group
shared beliefs and values created and communicated by the managers and leaders of an org to employees
Climate/Culture Strength
extent to which numbers of the organizations share a perception, or a value/belief pattern
process by which a new employee becomes aware of the values and procedures fo an org
how an employee matches up to a job/org
Attraction Selection Attraction model (ASA)
proposes that organizations and individuals undergo process of jointlt assessing probable fit based primarily on personality characteristics; goal is to make the workforce homogenous with respect to personality characteristics
Lewin's Model of Org Change
unfreeze, change, refreeze
Unfreezing (Lewin)
first stage in which individuals become aware of their values and beliefs
Changing (Lewin)
second stage in which individuals adopt new attitudes, values, and beliefs
Refreezing (Lewin)
third stage in which the new attributes and values of individuals are stabilized
Episodic Change
organizational change characterized as infrequent, discontinuous, and intentional; often launched with fanfare, with senior leaders clearly atrticulating pathways to change and disseminating info about the process and desire end state
Continuous Change
ongoing, evolving and cumulative org change characterized by small, continuous adjustments, created simultaneously across units that add up to substantial change
Survey Feedback (OD Techniques)
gathering data from different sources in the work org and using discrepencies in these perceptions as background for discussion between the 2 groups to illuminate beliefs, values, and attributes
Team Building (OD Techniques)
groups are given tasks and members evaluate each other and provide feedback
Process Consultation (OD Techniques)
work group is asked to discuss a work related issue while being observed by consultants or managers. They are then presented with feedback and alternative strategies to accomplish their goal