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98 Cards in this Set

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MANAGEMENT
- the process of getting things done through other people (coach or teacher)
- It is the planning and directing of efforts and/or the organizing and employing of human or material resources to accomplish some predetermined goals and objectives.
TRADITIONAL ROLES OF MANAGEMENT
- planning
- organizing
- staffing
- directing
- coordinating
- reporting
- controlling
- budgeting
DEFINITION OF PLANNING
- determining the vision and mission of the enterprise
- Determines programs and objectives
- Works out methods and procedures to accomplish the purpose of the enterprise
BENEFITS OF PLANNING
- ensures that we work effectively and efficiently (use the best resources to get to the goal)
- Assists in doing thins right the first time
- It is proactive, rather than reactive
STRATEGIC PLANNING
- plans for achieving long range goals
- fulfills the mission and values of the organization
TACTICAL PLANNING
- plans for achieving short-range goals
- Translates broad goals into specific objectives and action plans
ORGANIZATIONAL PLANNING
- plans which include:
- organization chart
- position descriptions
- channels of authority
- communication
PHYSICAL PLANNING
- plans for the site of the buildings
- plans for the layout of the offices, location of diagnostic and therapeutic equipment
FUNCTIONAL PLANNING
- planning directed toward major functional units
- Ex: nursing services, clinical laboratory, human resources, finance, clinical services
OPERATIONAL PLANNING
- planning that deals with work processes
- Ex: procedures, quality control, safety, etc...
- Quality control is very important because many deaths occur from medical errors
FINANCIAL PLANNING
- planning which addresses the inflow and outflow of currency, profit and loss, budgets, cost and profit centers, charges, and salaries
OTHER EXAMPLES OF PLANNING
- career planning
- time management plans
- daily work planning
5 ELEMENTS OF PLANNING
- philosophy/values
- vision
- mission
- goals
- objectives
- strategies
PHILOSOPHY/VALUES OF THE ORGANIZATION
- states the fundamental values of the organization
- The philosophy or value statement is translated into the vision.
- Ex: CHA recognizes its position as a member of the community and seeks to meet the health care needs of the entire community in order to create a better future.
VISION OF THE ORGANIZATION
- deals with the purpose
- should be clear and exciting
- should leave wide latitude for pursing new opportunities
- should fire people up in the organization
- states what the organization will be like or look like when it is fulfilling its purpose
- states an expression of hope
- possesses idealism, uniqueness, future orientation, and imagery
- Ex: Our vision is to become the most prestigious multispecialty group practice in our region, with a national reputation for excellence
- The vision is translated into a mission statement
MISSION OF THE ORGANIZATION
- proclaims the purpose of the organization in broad terms
- defines the organization
- specifies the unique aim of the organization and differentiates it from other organizations.
- Answers: who are we? What are we? Why do we exist? Who is our constituency?
- States where the organization wants to be in the near future
- Be clearly expressed in one paragraph or less
- Language a 10th grader understands
- Be believable to everyone in the organization
- Ex: The mission and purposes for which the corporation is formed are to establish maintain and operate hospitals; to conduct educational activities related to care of the sick and injured or the promotion of health; to promote and conduct scientific research related to care of the sick and injured or promotion of health; to engage in any activity designed to promote the general health of the community we serve.
- Translated into goals
GOALS OF THE ORGANIZATION
- The efforts undertaken to fulfill the mission and vision
- states what the Health Service Organization seeks to accomplish
- Gives more specific direction to the entire HSO
- When accompllished the goals result in fulfillment of the mission
- Ex: The chief goal of the hospital is to provide adequate and appropriate level care and treatment to its patients.
- Always more than one goal
- translated into objectives
OBJECTIVES OF THE ORGANIZATION
- relate to more specific actions taken to reach the goal(s)
- The ends and results to be accomplished by various HSOs or their units
- provides specific direction for managers and employees
- realistic
- understandable
- measurable
- behavioral (take action)
- achievable
- specific
Ex: By the end of the next quarter, we will provide triage within 10 minutes for all patients entering the ER
STRATEGIES IN AN ORGANIZATION
- The action steps
- States the specifics on how to accomplish the objectives
- Ex: Develop a telephone triage system to refer patients to primary care if ER care is deemed appropriate
DEFINITION OF ORGANIZING
- the establishment of a formal structure of authority and division of labor through which administrative subunits are defined and coordinated to carry out the plans.
- Gearing up to carry out the decisions made in the planning phrase.
- It concerns delineating tasks and establishing a framework of authority and responsibility for the people who will carry out these tasks.
WHAT ORGANIZING INVOLVES
- analyzing the workload
- Distributing the workload among employees
- Coordinating the activities so that the work proceeds smoothly
ORGANIZING TOOLS
- Policies, Procedures, and Rules
- Position descriptions
- Organization Chart
POLICIES
- guidelines for reaching goals and controlling behavior in the organization
- unnecessary or vague policies create red tape
- Poorly worded policies lead to confusion
- Inappropriate, ill-conceived, unfiar or illogical policies become obstacles to effective perfomance and require many exceptions
- An absence of policies results in crisis management and time will be wasted making the same decisions over and over again.
PROCEDURES AND RULES
- Specific means or methods to ensure that the policies are followed
DOCUMENTATION FOR POLICIES, PROCEDURES, AND RULES
- Employee Handbook
- Policy and procedures Manual
POLICY ISSUES
- Job sharing- 2 people work one full time job
- Flexible Scheduling- flexible arrival or departure as long as the person works the amount of hours he or she is suppose too
- Work at home programs
- Smoking and drug use
- Exposure to hazardous agents
- Precautions regarding care of patients with AIDS
- Sexual harassment (workshops)
- Cultural diversity
- Discrimination based on age or disability
- Requirements of accrediting and regulatory agencies
- Use and abuse of corporate email
USES OF POLICIES
- To promote understanding, clarity, and consistency of behavior because employees who know what is expected of them feel more confident
- eliminate repetitive decision making and standardize responses
- help in the orientation of new hires
- provide documneted controls as required by licensing and accreding agencies
SITUATIONS THAT NEED A POLICY OR POLICY CHANGE
- introduction of a new service
- Frequent violations of procedures or rules
- Problems of productivity, quality, schedules, or time
- Legal, ethical, or moral issues
- Frequent complaints from customers or employees
- Behavioral inconsistencies
- Repetitive questions being asked about procedures or rules
POSITION DESCRIPTIONS
- regarded as contracts between the employer and the employee
- establishes a rational link with performace appraisals/evaluations
- written in broad terms to provide more flexibility and to avoid rapid obsolescence
- used to communicate what is expected of an employee
- explains what an employee is to do and how well it must be done
- States only what is expected and the necessary qualifications
COMPONENTS OF A POSITION DESCRIPTION
- Title and classifcation is important for prestige and self esteem
- Summary Statement (position summary, Umbrella statement, function statement) condenses the responsibilities of the position
- Required Competencies describes the requirements of the job not the qualifications
- Reporting and coordinating relationships which identifies the immediate supervisor and others to whom he/she is accountable
- Special Demands
- Working Environment
- Responsibilities, Duties and Tasks
- performance standards
EXAMPLES OF REQUIRED COMPETENCIES
- Those the job holder MUST have and those you would like them to have
- educational requirements
- experience requirements
- Special skills/ certifications
- temperament, traits and personality
- describe desired traits of special importance or sensitivity in behavioral terms
SPECIAL DEMANDS
- most professional and technical positions make special demands on the person assuming the job
- Demands absolute integrity and accuracy in reporting observations
- demands discretions with patient information
- demands willingness to alter work schedules
- demands ability to work under stress
WORK ENVIRONMENT
- physical space
- temperature extremes
- exposure to infectious agents
- exposure to chemicals, radiation adn other hazards
- type of safety equipment and attire required
- ADA requirements
RESPONSIBILITIES, DUTIES, AND TASKS
- based on perfomrance criteria
- related to observable work behavior or results
- list in order of importance
- use action verbs
- Ex: Evaluates clinical results, makes visitors welcome
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
- inform employees how well they must do their work
- simplify performance evaluations
USE OF PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
- provide guidelines for orienting and training new employees
- enable employees to appraise their own performance
- provide a solid basis for perfomrance appraisals, counseling, and disciplinary actions
- suppoer pay for performance and promotion selections strategies
- identify training and development needs
- satisfy the requirements for accrediting and licensing agencies
- avoid charges of discrimination and protect against grievance actions
ORGANIZATION CHART
- represents how authority is delegated or how formal power is passed down the hierarchy
ORGANIZATION DESIGN
- refers to the way the building blocks of the organization are arranged to improve effectiveness and adaptive capacity
WHEN AN ORGANIZATION DESIGN IS REQUIRED
- when a new organization is forming
- when an existing organization is experienceing severe problems
- when there is a change in the environment that directly influences internal policies.
- when new progrmas or product lines are developed
- when there is a change in leadership
ASSESSMENT NEEDED BEFORE CREATING AN ORGANIZATION DESIGN
- identify or review the organization mission
- assess the organization itself based on its strengths and weaknesses
- assess the human resources based on appropriate knowledge and skills
- assess the political climate (informal organization)
COMPONENTS OF AN ORGANIZATION DESIGN
- "FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION"
- determine the desired capabilities and functions within the organization
- create the form based on the desired functions
TYPES OF DESIGNS
- functional design
- divisional design
- matrix design
- parallel design
- product line or program design
FUNCTIONAL DESIGN
- appropriate when labor is divide into departments specialized by function
- Most useful when the organziation has only a few products or goals
- enables decisions to be made on a centralized, hierarchical basis
- appropriate when an organization is in a relatively simple, stable environment ( no environmental changes, and limited contact with other organizations)
- Unsuitable when an organization grows and begins to diversify its services ebcause interdepartmental coodination tends to be poor and decisions pile up at the top
DIVISIONAL DESIGN
- Often found in large, academic medical centers that operate under conditions of high environmental uncertainty like medical school intensive research activities
- Often found in pharmaceutical companies and health supplier organizations where a large variety of products and markets are involved
- most appropriate where clear divisions can be made within the oranization and semiautonomous units can be created
- decentralizes decision making to the lowest level in the organization where the key expertise is available
- individual divisions have considerable autonomy for the clinical and financial operations with its own internal mangement structure
MATRIX DESIGN
- "mixed" designs
- evolved to improve mechanisms of lateral coordination and information flow across the organization
- Dual authority system (both people will report to a common superior and have authority over the same workers)
- particularly useful in highly specialized technological areas that focus on innovation
- allows program managers to interact directly with the environment technological developments
- each program requires a multidisciplinary team approach
DISADVANTAGES TO MATRIX DESIGN
- Dual authority line causes workers to report to two bosses. This can be difficult because of conflicting thoughts and expectations
- expensive because a lot of time is spent in meeting in order to keep everyone informed of program meetings
- Additional costs because of dual accounting, budget conrol, performance evaluations, and reward systems
PARALLEL DESIGN
- originally developed as a mechanism for promoting quality of working life in organizations
- is responsible for complex problem solving requiring participatory mechanisms while the functional organization retains responsibility for routine activities in the organization
- a means of managing and responding to changing internal and external conditions
- Used by organizations who use continuous quality improvement or total quality management approaches because they place the clients or patients concerns at the center of the organization
- headed by a quality council made up of members of the functional side of the organization
- representatives are drawn from all levels in the hierarchy and form all departments involved in the work process
ADVANTAGES OF PARALLEL DESIGN TO INDIVIDUAL STAFF MEMBERS
- expands their power
- provides opportunities to affect the oranization's decisions
- increases involvement in organizational issues
- offers the potential for individual growth through broadening of the range of work activites
DISADVANTAGES OF PARALLEL DESIGN
- organization members spend too much time in meetings
- increases costs of operations
- parallel structure may begin to assume responsibilities for routine decisions, overriding the functional structure
- increases conflicts over perceived priorities and resource allocations between the 2 structures
PRODUCT LINE (PROGRAM DESIGN)
- The placement of a person in charge of all aspects of a given product or group of products
- a cost center and the person in charge is responsible for all budgetary and financial responsibilites associated with the product.
- The person is responsible for coordinating all the funcional resources required to successfully manage the product line including planning, marketing, and human resources
- Sets criteria for grouping products
EXAMPLES OF PRODUCT LINES
- women's care
- oncology
- cardiology
- rehabilitation
- substance abuse
- long term care
- health promotion
ADVANTAGE OF A PRODUCT LINE
- increases operational efficiences by analyzing costs and revenues across related product lines so that redundancies will be eliminated
- Enhances market share by targeting marketing stratgies to the group of products and promoting the products to different segments of the market as appropriate (elderly, women)
DISADVANTAGES OF THE PRODUCT LINE
- The board, management, and medical staff need to be educated to the changes
- its difficult to choose criteria for grouping products
- the product line managers need to be selected and trained.
STAFFING
- recruiting, selecting, training, developing, promoting and retaining the employees to carry out the responsibilities necessary to fulfill the organization's vision, mission, goals, and objectives
BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE STAFFING
- improved customer service
- team building
- successful quality management strategies
- cost control
PROBLEMS WITH INEFFECTIVE STAFFING
- Training a replacement
- Repeat recruitment through advertising, interviewing, and negotiating
- time
- potential customer loss
- lower productivity
- possible unemployment compensation claim
- potential lawsuit
HOW TO GET A GOOD EMPLOYEE
- The recruiting program needs to provide many good candidaes to choose from
- The selection process that can pick the best candidate with a high degree of confidence
- The ability to persuade candidates of your choice to accept your offer
CHARACTERISTICS OF DESIRABLE CANDIDATES
- required technical or professional skills and expertise
- Social skills which are determined through the persons ability to articulate and being able to say and do what is necessary to maintain rapport with customers
- teamwork
- cooperation
- collaboration
- good communicator
- rapid learners
- flexible
LEGAL CONSTRAINTS TO HIRING
- Civil rights act of 1964
- Executive order 11246
- Affirmative Action
- The Equal Employment Opportuity Commission (EEOC) oversees affirmative action
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
- requires employers to identify areas of:
- minority and female underutilization
- numerical hiring goals
- promotion goals and other actions that increase minority and female employmentin job classifications where they are currently underutilized
UNLAWFUL INQURIES
- age
- nationality
- marital status
- spouse's occupation or place of employment
- pregnancy or plansfor pregnancy
- child or babysitting arrangement
- Military record unless it related to work performance
- Arrest record (can only ask about one's conviction record)
- membership in organizations other than work related ones
- religious affiliation
- Nature, severity, or existence of physical or mental impairments (no questions about use of sick leave)
- Worker's compensation history
- Questions asked only of mebers of a protected group (every person must be asked the same question)
AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT OF 1967
- amended in 1986
- prohibits employers from placing an age limit on candidates for employment
- Exceptions are where age is bona fide qualification
REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973 AND THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT OF 1992
- any questions asked of candidates should relate to the job in some way
- If candidate reveals inability to perform an essential function, do not probe into the medical history
- Tailor questions to identify how the disability renders the applicant unable to perform
- Employer may take measures to enable the person to perform essential funcions like widing doors or eliminating some non essential or infrequently performed tasks
RECRUITMENT SOURCES
- employee referrals
- newspaper job listings
- recruitment firms
- college recruitment
- unsolicited resumes
- direct mail
- employment agencies
- computerized databases
- job fairs
- walk in applicants
PERSONNEL SELECTION INSTRUMENTS
- application forms and resumes including a cover letter
- Credentials(confirm licenses, certifications, registrations)
- Pre-employment tests
- Interviews
WHO SHOULD CONDUCT THE INTERVIEW
- persons trained in the skill
- persons with whom the candidate will regularly interact
- The immediate supervisor
- Others as deemed necessary
FACE TO FACE INTERVIEWS
- one on one
- sequential one on one
- group/team/panel
- combination
TELEPHONE INTERVIEW
- one on one
- group/team/panel
CLOSE ENDED QUESTIONS
- get basic data
- Did you like your last supervisor?
OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS
- to get detailed information
- Tell me about your last supervisor
ICE BREAKERS
- used to warm up the applicant
- How did you learn about the job?
WHAT QUESTIONS SHOULD MEASURE
- determine professional or technical competency
- measure motivation
- evaluate teamwork
- evaluate followship skill
- evaluate stress resistance
- Determine retention potential (how long the applicant will be there)
- determine customer orientation
THE CANDIDATE'S QUESTIONS
- reveal insights about their values, goals, and their professional and technical knowledge
- How would you describe the personality of the organization?
EVALUATING THE CANDIDATES
- evaluate the required and preferred qualifications, including education and experience
- weigh negatives more heavily than positives
- evaluate the likelihood of flexibility and the ability to adjust to change
- watch for strong feelings and beliefs that suggest rigidity and intolerance
- Note where the candidate's emphasis is placed
HOW THE INTERVIEWER SHOULD MAKE A GOOD IMPRESSION
- introduce the candidate to one or two key people
- creae a positive vision in the candidate's mind by matching what the job offers with what the candidate wants
- if candidate is especially interested, discuss what you have to offer
- Do not forget the spouses
- answer questions completely and honestly
- avoid salary negotiations until you make an offer
- if there is a mentoring program mention this to the candidate
SPECIAL INCENTIVES
- cash bonuses
- relocation packages
- tuition reimbursement
- paid employee training
- flextime
- transportation reimbursement
POST INTERVIEW ACTIVITIES
- write and organize the report
- Notification- if you don't offer them the job than tell them
- Medical testing
- checking references (could be done prior to the interview or by writing, phone, or email)
- Finalizing the hiring
ORIENTATION
- early impressions last
- the first 90 days are crucial
-orientation starts before the new hires arrive
- the new employee is responsible for learning and understanding the total company
- teaching the basics come first
- info is timed to employee's needs
- info overload must be avoided
- The employee's supervisor must be involved
TRAINING
- training is especially important during and immediately following the orientation
- training never ends and should be geared to continuous improvement of the employee's knowledge, skills and abilities
- training is crucial in preparing employees for promotion and in retaining good employees
DIRECTING
- the continuous task of leadership
- supervision in the guidance and instruction of personnel toward organizational objectives
- the main role of directing is leadership
LEADERSHIP
- influencing people to acheive particular goals
- the acts and activities of one person that contribute to performance by others
- the process of influencing others to behave in preferred ways to accomplish organizational objectives
- The process of influencing others to behave in preferred ways to accomplish organizational objectives
- the mangerial activity through which managers maximize productivity, stimulate creative problem solving, and promote morale and satisfaction among those who are led.
- a process that uses non-coercive influence as a means of directing and coordinating the activities of the members of a group toward attaining the group's objectives
HOW LEADERSHIP IS LEARNED
- it is not learned in seminars
- it is either intuitive or gained through experience
THINGS THE BEST LEADERS DO
- strive to develop leadership skills of their teammates so that the team's success does not depend on one person
- influences people over whom they have no authority (horizontal management)
- understand how their prejudices influence the way they lead
- they censure intolerance and ensure equality of opportunity
- they learn about others' values and cultural heritage and become aware of the differences in communication styles and interpersonal relationships
LEADERS VS. MANAGERS
- people obey managers because they have to; people follow leaders because they want to
- leaders envision, managers follow others visions
- leaders rely on intuition, managers rely on computer printouts, objectivity, and rationality
- leaders are more self confident and take more risks
- leaders stress creativity; managers stress conformity
- Leaders project power with people, managers project power over people
- Leaders goals arise from desire and manager's goals arise form necessity
- Leaders create products, managers satisfy
- Leaders are artists, managers scientists
- managers say I will support you, leaders say follow me
- managers concerned with how and leaders are concerned with what
- leaders seek committment managers seek obedience
- leaders empower, mangers control
- Leaders prevent problems, managers correct them
- leaders like new challenges, managers like big offices and desks
- Leaders explore new paths and managers find out how successful people do things
- Leaders are interested in team building, manager are interested in computers
- Managers can be leaders
AUTHORITARIAN LEADERSHIP
- task oriented rather than employee oriented
- top down- encourages dependency to maintain control
- paternalistic- may appear to be kind but is a dictator
- autocratic
- directive
- I management
- think people must be controlled closely and given external motivation
PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP
- people oriented
- bottom up
- We management
- believe that people want to work and are willing to assume responsibility
- believes that people can be trusted and will put forth their best efforts
- motivate by means of internal factors
- good delegators
- In a consultative mode, seek input from their followers before making important decisions
- In delegative mode, leaders share responsibilites with their colleagues
- encourages, welcomes and acts on employee suggestions
THEORY Z LEADERSHIP
- creaed by Japanese
- characterized by employee participation and egalitarianism (feeling of equality)
- guaranteed employment
- maximum employee input
- quality circles
BUREAUCRATIC LEADERSHIP
- rules oriented
- by the book
- THEY management- they made the rules and we have to follow them
- managers act as monitors or police, enforcing policies, rules, procedures and orders from upper management.
- play negative self serving political games
- advance in stable or static organizations by not making mistakes, reducing risk taking and blaming others
- government
- incompatible with real leadership
- suitable for operations in which tasks are performed the same way over and over
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP
- contingency based
- flexible
- adaptive
- different strokes for different folks
- adapt their style to specific situations and to the specific needs of different members of the team
- as employees gain experience and confidence, can change from highly directive to supportive
- use a consultative or delegative style in areas of expertise and provide direction in areas of weakness
- Some managers that are trying to be participative fail to be directive
LAISSEZ FAIRE LEADERSHIP
- hands off
- fence rider
- absent
- NOT ME management
- avoids giving orders, solving problems, or making decisions
- evasive physically and verbally
- masters of double talk
MANIPULATION STRATEGY
- intimidating
- engaging in emotional scenes
- making people feel guilty
- implying that they are owed something for favors rendered
- name dropping
MANAGEMENT BY CRISIS STRATEGY
- surrounded by noise, confusion, and emotional upheavals
- everday is a series of crises
- complain they can't get things done because they are always busy putting out fires
- react rather than anticipate
MANAGEMENT BY EXCEPTION STRATEGY
- act as facilitators, resource people, supporters
- may be appropriate when leading certain categories of professionals or specialists
MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES STRATEGY
- setting specific objectives for performance
- evaluating based on the achievement status of the performance objectives
MANAGEMENT BY WANDERING AROUND STRATEGY
- frequent contacts with people inside and outside one's department, including customers and suppliers
- meeting in their work space, not yours
- listening more than telling
- askin for advice and opinions
- carrying a little black book to write down employees suggestions
CONTEMPORARY LEADERS ACTIVITIES
- team building and group problem solving
- cross training (allow people to be trained in more than their specific job)
- empowering
- improved quality and customer service
- cost cutting
- managing change
- staff reductions or shuffling
- decentralizing or establishing satellite activiies
- worker safety and health
- environmental preservation
CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE LEADERS
- must be a walking mission statement
- presnet themselves with enthusiasm and conviction
- surrounds themselves with optimistic doers
- use success imagery
- recharge their energy by relaxing and meditating
- they are competent
- they are emotionally stable
- they get the job done
- they are good communicators
- they are unafraid
- they are credible
- they develop committed followers
- they exhibit charisma
12 COMMANDMENTS OF LEADERSHIP
- know what you want
- take control of your career
- believe in ourself
- go for the goal
- enjoy the game
- be capable
- let your expertise show
- rely on others
- look for opportunities
- learn the ropes
- never stop networking
- get a mentor