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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
components of xray system
wall switch
x ray tube
control panal
power supply
control panal
used to select exposure settings
power supply
receives standard AC from the wall swithch, converts it into DC and provides voltage according to the exposure selected that energizes the x ray tube
direct current
E- flow in one direction only
alternating current
E- flow in alternating directions
what does control panal consist of?
main on/off swith
exposure button
mA and kVp
xray emission light
standard x ray production
60 cycles/ sec
110 or 220 volts
what increases or decreases voltage
process of conversion of AC to Dc for x ray
what type or rectificaion are most waves?
half wave, self rectifying. only half a cycle is used to produce an x ray
constant potential machines
use full wave rectificaion
full wave rectificaion
conventional 60 cycle AC hi voltage current is repaced with hi frequency power supply or constant potential is created between anode and cathode
advantages of full wave rectification of a constant potential machine
longer scale contrast and low pateint dose
how are xrays produced
by electric current
electic current
flow of e- in a conductor
use amperes
most dental machines operate between 7-15 mA
what does flow of e- depend on
prssure of voltage (volts)

ristance of conductor to the flow of electir current (ohms)
potential difference or voltage
difference in elecrical potential energy between two points due to the excess of e- at one point relatie to another

kVp (dilovolt peak)
peak voltage or potential difference between anode and cathode reached during a cylcle
electron volts
actual kinetic energy of a cathode electron traveling from cathode to anode
components of xray tube head
metal house
immersion oil
x ray tube
unlad glass window
aluminum filter
lead collimator
components of xray tube head
transformer and the x ray tube lie within the xray tueb head and an insultaing material surround transformer
why are xray tube and transformers immersed in oil/
for insulation, cooling, and prevention of spard from one component t oanother the tube head
coolige tube
xray tube
evacuated lead glass
within tube head
has anode and cathode
what does xray cathode consist of?
tungsten filament generates e - when heated
and molybdenum focusing cup
what does xray anode consist of?
tungsten target in an copper stem. Target converts enery of e- from filament into xray photon
how is x ray insuffeint?
99% heat only 1% photon
Why is tungsten used?
hi melting pt
hi atomic number
low vapor pressure
hi thermal conductivity
why is tungsten embedded in a copper stem at anode/
because copper is a good thermal conductor and reduces the risk of target melting
small area on the target with most e- strike to make xray
forcal spot on anode
the smaller the focal point, the sharper the image
anode position vs cathodes
anode target is angled 15-20 degrees to cathode to reduce the actural focal spot
actual focal spot
rectangular in shape
effective focal spot
source of radiation, appears square when vein within x ray beam
line focus princple
method of reducing the actual focal spot sinze on target in x ray tubes of angling the target to get a smaller effective focal spot thean actual focal spot causing sharper image
primary functions of power supply
lo voltage current to heat x ray tube filament, to genterate a hi difference between anode and cathode by hi voltage transfomrer
change V from low to hi or hi to lo wo loss of energy
transformer components
copper wrappeed around opposed ends of iron core
Step up transformers
more turns in secondary coil
increase voltage
decrease current
step down transformers
fewer turns in secondary coil
decrase voltage
increase current
purpose of step down transformer
reduce voltage of AC to 10 V and incrase current to 3-6 ameres to heat filament
what regulates step down transfomere
mA swithch, regualtes temp of filament and filament is source of e-
the hotter the filament the greater the number of e-
what is required to acclerated e- from cathode to anode to create x ray?
hi voltage
what selctes voltage?
kVp. it applies voltage to hi end transformer
converts primary voltage from input source into the secondary voltage
types of exposure timers
mechanical and electronic
x ray timiing circuit
delays start of exposure time for half sec, actual time of exposure, seconds or impuslses
the longer the exposure. . .
the grater the number of x rays produced
most xray machine timers
60 cycles, Ac, half way, self rectified
what controls number of e-
what controls x ray phonton spped, enery and tissue penetration?
what is x ray exposure time