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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
WHat is a biopsy? Name two types.
Makes a definitive diagnosis. Requires examination of tissue under a microscope. Excision type- when all tissue removed. Incision type-when part of the tissue is removed.(Scapel and blade type)
what is the main concern when performing excision biopsies?
You want to know if there are any lesions at your cut margin.
what is a punch biopsy?
When the dermatologists removes a plug of tissue to examine under a microscope.
What is an aspirational biopsy?
When a large guage needle is used to aspirate tissue fluid that need to be examined. More frequently used. Examination tissue needs to be processed, then stained with H&E(hematoxylin and eosin)
What is the definition of inflammation?
A nonspecific response to injury and occurs in the same manner regardless of the nature of the injury
Name the three types of healing?
Primary intent: If the margin of the scar can be closed together. NO scar tissue.
secondary intent: when you can't get the margins of the wound to close you have a void that the body has to fill. Extraction site of tooth
tertiary intent: the margins were closed but became infected and damaged surrounding tissue. Either the wound closes primarily or could'nt be closed.
what is repair and regeneration?
If the wound can be returned to its original structure with scar tissue.
what is the purpose of a clot?
when we have an open wound, blood tends to fill the wound and clot. The clot is there to protect the wound. Factors in the clot will promote the growth of tissue to surrounding tissue such as: acute inflammatory cells, PMN's, granulocytes.
what do the inflammatory cells do?
They clean debris, help dissolve some of the clot. In days, the capillaries from surrounding tissues will begin to proliferate and grow into the area of the clot.
How do acute inflammatory cells and macrophages move?
By chemotaxis, directed movement of the white blood cells in the injured tissue by chemical mediators
what constitutes PMN( polymorphonuclear leukocyte).
phagocytic cells come to clean debris, any bacteria or foreign tissue in the wound, any damaged cells as a result of trauma. PMN's are the first cells to emigrate to the site of injury and is the primary cell involved in acute inflammation.
In a matter of 1 to 2 days capillaries will grow into the area.......
then comes the fibroblasts that will lay down primative type collagen.
Granulation tissue is formed-healing tissue
Name the five cardinal signs of inflammation
Reddness, swelling, pain, heat, loss of function.
Where are most of the formed elements in a blood vessel located?
In the center of the stream. Axial flow or stream right down the center of the axis
What is the first reaction to trauma?
Vasoconstriction; smooth arterial muscle constrict only for a period of time.
What occurs after vasoconstriction?
Vasodilation; which allows blood flow to slow down, now the redness occurs, also helps to keep inflammatory cells in that area
What is pavementing?
When the PMN's, monocytes, and white blood cells line themselves along the wall of blood vesels.
WHat occurs in the break between endothelial cells lining the blood vesel wall?
White blood cells squeeze through the pores, pores get larger with vasodilation; process of emigration (There are also motile cells moving on their own known as diapedisis)
What action leads to edema and swelling?
When plasma is leaving the blood vessels.
Hw is heat generated?
By vasodilation; if blood flow has slowed down, quantity of blood in the area increases
How is pain generated?
Pain is generated by bradykines.
What causes loss of function?
Trauma due to surrounding tissues or pressure from swelling.
What is ankyloglossia?
Tongue-tie; lingual frenum is too short or attached too anteriorly. Impedes the motion of the tongue, causes a speech impediment.
What ia lingual varices?
Enlarged tortuous veins on the ventral surface of the tongue. Some will have a blood clot, varix or thrombossed sometimes seen in other locations of the oral cavity.
What is fissured tongue?
Deep dorsal surface grooves; usually developmental on adults. Very rarely found on children. If it is really deep food can get caught in the grooves. Sometimes seen with Down's syndrome.
What is hairy tongue?
Proliferation of the filiform papillae; color varies due to chromogenic bacteria (pigment producing bacteria). Seen more in patients with poor dental hygiene.
What is central papillary atrophy (median rhomboid glossitus)?
An erythematous area located in the midline of the tongue, anterior to the circumvallate papillae and devoid of filiform papillae. Unknown etiology.
What is geographic tongue (migratory glossitis)?
Erythematous areas devoid of filliform papilae usually with a yellowish-white border; areas appear to migrate, although they don't (one area heals, another appears). Can occur in areas other than the tongue;erythema migrans- redness that migrates. Asymptomatic
What are Fordyce granules?
Yellowish clusters of submucosal sebaceous glands. Readily noticeable.
Stem cells; mesenchyma, parenkymal, pluripotential
What is leukodema?
An opalescent (milky) hue of the buccal mucosa due to increased intracellular edema. Genetic predisposition; corrugated wrinkled appearance.
What are lip pits?
BLind sacs found in the vermillion zone or commissures, cause is usually congenital (evident at birth)
What are melanin pigmentations?
Focal brownnish areas that may be racial in orign or indicative of a systemic disease (ex. Addison's disease or Puetz-Jeghers)
what is retrocuspid papilla?
A fibrous elevation lingual to the mandibular canines.
what is leukoplakia?
Not a diagnosis, but a clinical description of a white lesion that does not rub off. Etiology; usually due to chronic irritation with hyperkeratosis. May be premalignant with the use of alcohol or tobacco.
What is Lichen planus?
Unknown etiology. White or gray threadlike papules in a linear or reticular arrangement (Wickham's strie). Plague like form more common on the dorsum of the tongue. A bulbous and or erosive form. Seen mostly on nervous high strung individuals. Treatment is none unless it is symptomatic then corticosteroids are prescribed.
If the lesion is too large for an excisional biopsy, what will the clinician resort to?
the clinician will take a incisional biopsy(removing a portion of the lesion and surrounding tissue)