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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Rostral
Term meaning towards the beak
or head end
Cephalic or cranial
A term meaning toward the head
end
Caudal
A term meaning near or toward
the tail
Dorsal
A term meaning near or toward
the back.
Ventral
A term meaning near the front
Sagittal
A term meaning the vertical
plane which cuts the embryo in
left and right parts (previously
parasagittal).
Medial
A sectioning plane in the middle
of the medial plane (previously
midsagittal or sagittal section).
Coronal
A section in the vertical or frontal
plane parallel to the main axis of
the embryo which cuts the
embryo in dorsal and ventral
parts.
Transverse
A section perpendicular to the
Cephalocaudal axis dividing the
embryo into caudal and cephalic
portions, cross section.
Growth
Growth is an increase in size or
number of cells in the whole or
any part of the organism
Morphogenesis
This is a change in shape or
location of a cell or tissue
Critical period
Times during which an organ system is being developed.

*Exposure to teratogens during the critical period can cause
developmental defects.
Morphogenic Movements
This is a change in location of
cells during development, e.g.
gastrulation, neurulation, neural
crest migration, etc.
Patterning
The establishment of a
programmed subset of cells in
proper relation to each other and
to surrounding tissues., e.g.
shaping of bones and muscles on limbs, positioning of specific
tooth types within the jaws,
patterning of hair, etc
Cytodifferentiation
A complex process by which a
cell or cell line attains and
expresses a stable phenotype.
This usually occurs over the
course of several generations
with cells expressing
intermediate phenotypes.
Morphodifferentiation
A change in shape of a
developing organ due to
morphogenic movements or
differential growth
Tissue (epithelial-mesenchymal)
interaction
Interactions between tissues
which are necessary for
subsequent development of one
or all of the tissues involved e.g., the interaction of oral epithelium and dental mesenchyme is necessary for the formation of teeth: the interaction between the notochord and ectoderm is
needed for the formation of the
neural plate.
Differentiation
The process of achieving a stable different phenotype. It results in a loss of potentiality but cells gain new properties.
Induction
This is the action or physical
presence of a tissue or molecule
which causes differentiation
Primary induction
Early events occurring during the
blastula and gastrula stages that
lead to the formation of axial
tissues (neural plate, paraxial
mesoderm, notochord).
Competence
On receiving an environmental
cue, it is the ability of a cell to
differentiate along a certain line.
Down syndrome
Trisomy 21
*facial clefts
*shortened palate
*protruding and fissured tongue
*delayed eruption in teeth