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173 Cards in this Set

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Diploid Number of Chromosomes?
-How many are Sex Chromosomes?
-What is the # of Autosomes?
46 chromosomes total
-23 Mother
-23 Father

2 are Sex Chromosomes

44 Autosomes (22 mother + 22 father)
Mother + Father
Fusion of the Male and Female Germ Cells?

Spermatozoa and Ova are called what?

2 Gametes fuse to make a ___?
Fertilization

Gametes

Zygote
Define Meiosis?

Define Mitosis?
Meiosis- process by which germ cells are produced
-cell has 1/2 the chromosome # (23)

Mitosis- division of somatic cells
-cells will be identical to parent cell (46)
Before Mitotic Division is done the amount of DNA is doubled leading to ___ times the amount that should be is the cell
4X- Tetraploidy
Name some of the defects that can be see in someone that has triosomy 13 (Down's Syndrome)
Facial Clefts
Shortened Palate
Protruding Fissured Tongue
Delayed Eruption of the Teeth
Can Trisomy and Monosomy occure in Sex Chromosomes?
YES
Name 3 Autosomal Dominant Conditions?
-Only one parent needs to have the disorder in order for it to manifest,...it will be shown in EVERY Generation and 1/2 of the children
Achrondoplasia
Cleidocranial Dysostosis
Osteogenesis Imperfecta

*Amelogenesis Imperfecta (in some cases)
Name 1 Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
-Can only express itself when both parents have gene
Chondroectodermal Dyslpasia
*Microcephaly
*Cystic Fybrosis
Teratolygy
Study of Genetic Defects
What are the 2 stages of Prenatal development?
Embryonic Stage
Fetal Stage
Can Trisomy and Monosomy occure in Sex Chromosomes?
YES
Name 3 Autosomal Dominant Conditions?
-Only one parent needs to have the disorder in order for it to manifest,...it will be shown in EVERY Generation and 1/2 of the children
Achrondoplasia
Cleidocranial Dysostosis
Osteogenesis Imperfecta

*Amelogenesis Imperfecta (in some cases)
Name 1 Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
-Can only express itself when both parents have gene
Chondroectodermal Dyslpasia
*Microcephaly
*Cystic Fybrosis
Teratolygy
Study of Genetic Defects
What are the 2 stages of Prenatal development?
Embryonic Stage
Fetal Stage
Prenatal Development consist of 2 stages, NAME THEM?

Name all substages
Embryonic
-Cellular Proliferation// Migration
- Morphogenesis (Differentiation of all internal and external organs

Fetal Stage
How long is the embryonic stage?

How long is the fetal stage
Embryonic Stage= 8 weeks
-CP and Migration (0-4)
-M/D (4-8)

Fetal Stage= 5 weeks- birth
-Growth and Maturation of fetus
Most tissues develop between interaction between ___ and ___?
Epithelium and Mesenchyme
Name the 3 tissue interactions that must occur in order for development to occur?
Induction: initiates differentiation

Competence: cell must be able to respond

Differentiation
Formation of a 3 layered embryo begins after fertilization undergoes a series of divisions leading to the formation of a ball of cells known as the _____.
Morula
After Cavitation the morula is called ____.
Blastocyte
-a blastocyte is formed when fluid seeps into the morula
What are the two cell populations of the blastocyte.
Trophoblast-Line the cavity
-form primary yolk sac

Embryoblast- small cluster of cells w/in the blastocyte
Embryoblast cells form the ____ and the Trophoblast cells form _____.
Embryoblast >>Embryo Proper

Trophoblast>> (Assoc. w/ implantation of the embryo) Placenta
What happens at Day 8 of Gestation (Period of development)
Cells of Embryoblast Differentiate into a 2 layer disk called the Bilaminar Germ Disk
The differentiated Embryoblast Cells become what dorsally and what ventrally.
Dorsally- Ectodermal cells that are columnar and will reorganize to form AMNIOTIC CAVITY

Ventrally- Endodermal Cells are Cuboidal and will form a 2ndary Cavity (2ndary Yolk Sac)
At what stage is the axis of the embryo determined?
During the time that the inner cell mass (embryoblast) is differentiating into ectodermal and endodermal layers
How long does it take for the differentiation of the inner cellualar mass to take place?
2 weeks
On the Dorsal side of the embryo where the ectoderm is forming what 2 structures can be seen at the midline?
Prochordal Plate: Future head of embryo

Primitive Streak: midline structure formed by ectoderm
What is the last event that happens during the Embryonic Phase I
Mesoderm forms from the invagination of the ECTODERM and spreading LATERALLY between endo and ectoderm
What happens during the 3rd week of development
Development of the Trilaminar Disk
- Mesoderm formation
How and Where does the Notochord form?
Ectodermal Cells at the Primitive Node (rostral part of primitive streak) divide and migrate between the endoderm and the ectoderm >>> solid column is formed at the midline >>> column pushes as foward toward prochondral plate (will be head of embryo)
Ectodermal cells that will form the mesoderm migrate laterally and forward around what structures
Notochord and Prochondral Plate
What two structures seperate the Endoderm from the Ectoderm after the migration of cells

What is the exception?
Notochord and Mesoderm

The exception is the at the tail end of the embryo (cecal plate)
When the cells migrate are anterior to the Prochodral Plate they will form what structure?
Cardiac Plate>> form heart
What happens during the 3rd week of development
Development of the Trilaminar Disk
- Mesoderm formation
How and Where does the Notochord form?
Ectodermal Cells at the Primitive Node (rostral part of primitive streak) divide and migrate between the endoderm and the ectoderm >>> solid column is formed at the midline >>> column pushes as foward toward prochondral plate (will be head of embryo)
Ectodermal cells that will form the mesoderm migrate laterally and forward around what structures
Notochord and Prochondral Plate
What two structures seperate the Endoderm from the Ectoderm after the migration of cells

What is the exception?
Notochord and Mesoderm

The exception is the at the tail end of the embryo (cecal plate)
When the cells migrate are anterior to the Prochodral Plate they will form what structure?
Cardiac Plate>> form heart
Embryonic Stage II involves ___ and ___.
Differentiation and Morphogenesis
Major tissues and organs will differentiate from ____.
Trilaminar Disk
Why is phase II important to dentist?
B/c it is during this stage that the Head, Face and Teeth Develop
During Embryonic Phase II there is differentiation of the ___ and ___ from ectoderm and differentiation of ____.
Nervous System and Neural Crest Cells from Ectoderm

Differentiation of the Mesoderm
The hallmark of phase II of the embryonic stage of fetal development is what?
Folding of the embryo into 2 axes (rostrocaudal//lateral)
What is the first event that happens in Nervous System Development?
Thickening of the Ectoderm at the rostral end to form the Neural Plate
The neural plate will rapidly form raised margins calle ___.
Neural Folds
This structure is created as a result of the neural folds continuing to rise.
Neural Groove
When the Neural Folds fuse together they will form what structure?
Neural Tube
The Neural Tube will expand and become what 3 structures?
Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain
While the Nervous System is developing the ___ is differentiating.
Mesoderm
The Mesoderm thickens on each side of the ____ to form the _____.
Midline; Paraxial Mesoderm
The Paraxial Mesoderm in the trunk breaks into segmented blocks called ____.
Somites
Can you name the 3 components of a somite?
Sclerotome: 2 adjacent vertebrae and disks

Myotome: Segmented mass of muscle

Dermatome: Ct of the skin over the somite
In the head the paraxial mesoderm partially or fully segments to form ____.
Partially segments to form Somatomeres
-Some of the Head Musculature
Paraxial Mesoderm of the ____ remains thin and is AKA Intermediate Mesoderm. It will become the Urogenital System
Periphery
What is the Urogenital System
Urinary and Genital Structures
-Kidney, Bladder, Ovaries, Vagina, Penis etc...
The Lateral Paraxial Mesoderm will form into 8 different structures name 2 systems and 2 organs that orginate from this layer
Cardiovasular and Lymphatic System

Adrenal Cortex

Spleen
The other 5 structures that orginate from the the lateral paraxial mesoderm are

-___ associated w/ Muscles and Visera

-Serous Membrane of ____.

-Peri____ and Per_____

-_____ and _____ cells
CT associated w/ Muscles and Visera

Serous Membrane of Pleura

Pericardium and Peritoneum

Blood and Lymphatic Cells
Folding of the Embryo occurs in what two dimensions?
Rostrocaudally and Laterally
Head fold in crucial for the development of the _____.
-This is the Rostrocaudal Fold
Primitive Stomatodeum
(future oral cavity)
This layer lines the oral cavity?
Ectoderm
Stomatodeum seperates from gut via the _____.
Buccopharyngeal Membrane
The purpose of the lateral fold is what?
Mesoderm is deposited and Endoderm will form gut
Where do the Neural Crest cells come from?
As the neural tube is forming a group of cells decide to do there "own thing" and seperate from the Neuroectoderm
What do Neural Crest cells do after they differentiate from Neuroectoderm?
Migrate and Differentiate extensively in the developing embryo
What do the Neural Crest cells become when they differentiate?
Spinal and Sensory Ganglia
Schwann and Pigment Cells
Meninges
Sympathetic Neurons
CT of Head
What is the CT of the head called?
Ectomesenchyme
What is the CT everywhere else in the body except the head called?
Mesenchyme-b/c it comes from Mesoderm
What does Cephalogenesis mean
Formation of the head
Formation of the Primitive Mouth
-Structures that surround the stomadeum in the beginning
--Rostrally?
--Caudally?
--Laterally?
Rostrally- Neural Plate

Caudally-Cardiac Plate

Laterally- Brachial Arches
Buccopharyngeal Membrane seperates the ____ from the ___.

-Will this connection always exist
Stomatodeum from the Foregut

-No this connection will not always exsist b/c it will break down later
The Brachial Arches form the ____ b/c of the proliferating ____.
Pharyngeal Wall b/c of the proliferating lateral plate mesoderm
How many brachial arches will form/
6
Do all 6 brachial arches appear in humans?
No
-The 5th and 6th are transient structures, meaning they appear briefly and then disappear
The Brachial Arches are seperated externally by ____ and internally by ______.
Brachial Grooves;Pharyngeal Pouches
What is the function of the Brachial Arches
To seperate the stomatodeum from the developing heart
Are all 3 layers present in the Brachial arches?
Yes
-Outer: Ectoderm
-Inner: Endoderm
-Core: Mesoderm
When the Neural Crest Mesenchyme (CT)and some other mesenchyme condenses a bar of cartilage is formed and differentiates. This bar is known as ____.
Arch Cartilage
How many arch cartilages exsists? What are there names, associated muscles and nerves?
Two
-1st Arch Cartilage-Meckel's Cartilage: (Striated) Muscles of Mastication and Trigeminal Nerve

2nd Arch Cartilage-Reichert's Cartilage: (Straited) Muscles of Facial Expression and the Facial Nerve
Give the Innervation of the Brachial Arches (1-3)
1st- Trigeminal
2nd- Facial
3rd- Glossalpharyngeal
The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Brachial Arches contribute to what?
Face, Mouth, and Tongue Development
What are facial processes
swellings of mesenchyme that fuse to form the face
T or F: Elimination of a furrow will form the face.
True
Where in the head does the fusion of a process still produce a furrow?
Palate
With morphogenesis of the face, what are the new limits of the Stomatodeum?
Frontal, Maxillary, Mandibular Processes
Proliferation and Migration of the Ectomesencyme form the _____.
Primitive Nasal Cavities
Thickenings in Ectoderm of Frontal Promience are called _____.
Olfactory Placodes
With Rapid proliferation of underlying mesenchyme around placodes 3 structures form. Name them?
Lateral Nasal Process
Nasal Pit
Medial Nasal Process
The area where the lateral and medial nasal processes develop, along with the nasal pit is called _____.
Frontonasal Process Region
The Lateral Nasal Process and the Maxillary Process will form this IMPORTANT structure?
Nasolacrimal Duct
-CRY!!!
The Medial Nasal Process and the Frontonasal Process will fuse to form what 3 structures?
Middle portion of Nose and Upper Lip

Ant. Portion of Maxilla

Primary Palate
How is the Upper Lip formed?
The Medial Maxillary Process pushes on the Medial Nasal Process towards the midline superiorly
How is the Lower Lip formed?
Ectomesenchyme of the Mandibular Process pushes towards the midline inferiorly
When does the formation of the primary epithelial band occur?
24-38 days of gestation
Is there a Secondary Palate in all species?
NO
What is the purpose of the secondary palate?
-the primary palate can not do this!
Seperate Oral Cavity from Nasal Cavity
Initially in development the oral and nasal cavities are bounded anteriorly by the ____ and occupied by the ___.
Primary Palate; Tongue
When does the formation of the secondary palate begin,...end?
7-8 Week of development; 3 monthes (about 12 weeks)
In the development of the secondary palate 3 outgrowths occur in the oral cavity. Name them?
Nasal Septum
Palatine Shelves
The Nasal Septum grows downward from the ______ along the midline. While the Palatine Shelves grow from the _____ along the midline
Frontonasal Process; Maxillary Process
What is the movt of the palatine shelves when they begin to take there position.
Project Downward on each side of the Midline

Tongue w/draws from between shelves

Shelves ELEVATE and FUSE above the tongue and with Nasal Septum
When the Nasal Septum and Palatine Shelves fuse along the midline this does what?
Seperates the Oral and Nasal Cavities
This event must occur in order for the palatine shelves to merge properly
Elimination of Epithelial Covering (seam)
-DNA Syntheses ceases 24-48 hours before adhesion
What is cleft palate? What are its types?
When the palatine shelves dont fuse
-Syndromic: like in Triosomy 13
-Non-Syndromic: Isolated Event
When is the Epithelial Seam eliminated?
When epithelium transforms into mesenchyme
Cleft palate occurs _____ b/c fusion occurs ____.
*Normally
Laterally; Laterally
Molar and Premolar come from the ____ everything else comes from the ____.
Maxilla; Mandible
T or F:An appliance can be placed between palatine shelves to create more room for teeth to align correctly.

-If true up to what age?
True; Up to age 17
T or F: It doesnt matter at what time or age an implant is done?
False; Bone development must be fully completed or the implant will move
Formation of the Tongue begins with the ____ meeting at the midlin under the primitive mouth
Pharyngeal Arches
Proliferation of the Mesenchyme creates swellings in the mouth called what?

These swellings occur at the midline in the _____.
Tuberculum Impar

Midline of Mandibular Process
Tuberculum Impar is connected to 2 bulges called what?
Lingual Swellings
Lingual Swelling enlarge and fuse w/ Tuberculum Impar to form what?
Anterior 2/3 of Tongue
What arch is the anterior 2/3 of the tongue derived from?
-Innervation?
Arch I
-innervated by the trigeminal nerve
Root of the tongue arises from the ____.
Hypobrachial Eminence (anterior copula)
What arch is the root of the tongue (posterior 1/3) derived from?
-Innervation?
Arch III
-Glossalpharyngeal
Is the 2nd arch involved in tongue development?
No- b/c IIIrd arch overgrows IInd and IIIrd and Ist fuse
The hypobrachial eminence is divided into 2 divisions.
-Name them and what they give rise to?
Anterior Copula- posterior 1/3 of tongue

Hypobrachial Eminence- Epiglottis
Muscles of the Tongue come from where?

What is the motor innervation of the tongue
Occipital Somites
Hypoglossal
What are the 3 components of the skull?

Which of the answers develops via endochondrial ossification
Cranial Vault
Cranial Base
-Endochondrial Ossification
Face
Membranous Ossification means?
Bone formed directly from mesencyme w/ NO cartilage precursor
-Cranial Vault and Face
Which of the 3 components of the face is the last to form
1st- Vault
2nd-Face
3rd-Base
What Brachial Arch does the Mandible and Maxilla develop from?
1st Brachial Arch
Mandible forms w/in the ____ and Maxilla forms w/ in the ____.
Mandibular Process

Maxillary Process
In Primitive Vertebraes ____ of the 1st Brachial Arch forms the _____.
Meckle's Cartilage; Lower Jaw
T or F: In Humans Meckle's Cartilage contributes to the development of the Mandible.
False- there is only a close postional relationship, MC doesnt contribute to the development of the lower jaw AT ALL!
Meckle's Cartilage is what type of Cartilage
Hyaline
Mandibular Branch of the Trigeminal Nerve innervates Meckle's Cartilage at the beginning 2/3. It then divides into ____ medially and _____ laterally in relation to the cartilage.
Medially- Lingual Nerve

Laterally- Inferior Alveolar Nerve
The Inferior Alveolar Nerve will divide into ___ and ___.
Incisor and Mental Nerves
The ____ aspect of Meckel's Cartilage condenses (mesenchyme) where?

Wk:6
Lateral; Angle where the inferior alveolar nerve separates into Incisor and Mental Nerves
Wk: 7

Intermembranous Ossification results in what
First bone of the Mandible to develop- BODY!!!
After Ossification; Meckel's Cartilage regresses except where?

What does this structure develop into?
Posterior Part
-Malleus of Middle Ear

-Sphenomandibular Ligament
Name the 3 Secondary Cartilages that give rise to the rest of the mandible
Condylar
Coronoid
Symphyseal

- Give rise to the Ramus and Symphysis of Mandible
What is the TRUE purpose of Meckle's Cartilage besides Malleus of Middle Ear and SML
Forms Canal of Mandibular Nerve
The Maxilla is formed from the ____ and ____.
Premaxilla (frontonasal processes)
Zygomatic Processes
Congenital Defects will lead to these 2 things?
Cleft Palate and Syndromes of the Head and Neck
What role do Neural Crest Cells play in the development of tooth structure?
NC cell migrate onto facial structure and participate in development by communicating with the epithelium
T or F: Closure of the palatine shelves and tooth development occur at different times?
False
-Occur at the same time
Define Ectomesenchyme
CT that NC cells have migrated into
Tooth development is a result of interaction between ___ and ____.
Epithelium and Mesenchyme
What time does the primary epithelial band occur?
24-38 days of Gestation
What is the significance of the primary epithelial band?
It will thicken and develop into the future dental arches (upper and lower)
Due to a change in Mitotic Spindle the cleavage plane of the cells of the primary epithelial band change. This allows the epithelial band to develop into two things. Name them
Vestibular Lamina
-future vestibule between cheek and tooth bearing area
Dental Lamina
-future site of teeth
T or F: The Dental Lamina develops behind the Vestibule Lamina.
True
It is within the ____ that the 3 stages of tooth development take place.
Dental Lamina
-Bud
-Cap
-Bell
Initiation of tooth development comes from ____ and ___.
1st Arch Epithelium + NC cells = Tooth Development
Bone can develop from what?
Any epithelium and NC cells
Odontogenesis is initiated by factors in the ____ that will influence the _____. But as time passes the ____ will influence odontogenesis.
First Arch Epithelium;
Ectomesenchyme;
Ectomesenchyme
Bud Stage
-Name the 5 steps
Series of Epithelial-Mesenchyme interactions

Mesenchymal Cells surround tooth bud, condense and proliferate

Epithelium becomes competent to the signals from ectomesenchyme

Epithelium Proliferates

Epithelial Bud Forms
In the transition from Bud to Cap Stage there are morphogenic changes that occur that will give rise to what?
Different Teeth
The BM is made up of type ___ collagen and ___.
Type IV and Laminin
If there is a defect in the dental lamina then what will happen?
There will be and absence of a tooth
___ seperates CT from Epithelium.
Basement Membrane
NC cells in the Dental Follicle will make what 3 structures of the tooth
Cementum
PDL
Alveolar Bone
Dentin is of ___ orgin while Enamel is of ___ orgin.
Dentin: CT

Enamel: Epithelial
Cap Stage
-It is at this stage that dentin and enamel ___ begin expression
Genes
Cap Stage
-Epithelium cont to proliferate into ectomesenchyme

-Cell density of ectomesenchyme increases. This is called ___.

-When the tooth bud begins to look like a cap sitting on a ball of ectomesenchymal cells 2 structures are distinguishable.
-What is the Cap
-What is the ball of cells
Condensation

-Cap:Dental Organ= Enamel
-Ball of Cells: Dental Papilla= Dentin and Pulp
The Dental Follicke limits the ___ and encapsulates___. It is the future of ____.
Limits:Dental Papilla
Encapsulates:Dental Organ

Future of Periodontal Tissues
Enamel Knots form what?
___ has a role in cusp pattern formation
Cusps
-FGF-4
Bell Stage is AKA what?
Histodifferentiation- Ameoloblast and Odontoblast aquire phenotype

Morphogenesis-crowns take shape
Bell Stage

-Enamel Organ cells become ___ and form the ____.

Cells next to the dental papilla become ___ and form the _____.
-This layer has a high ___ content and is associated w/ the formation of ____.
Cuboidal; Outer Enamel Epithelium

Columnar; Inner Enamel Epithelium; Glycogen; Enamel
Bell Stage cont:

Cervical Loop is what?
-Future?
-If problems occur?
Region where IEE an OEE meet at the rim of the dental organ
-Future Sulcus
-Periodontal Problems result
Bell Stage cont:

-The Stellate Reticulum is between the ___ and ___ and does what? This layer has high ___ content to pull water into organ.
OEE and IEE
-provides Ca and phosphorus to enamel
-GAG
Stratum Intermedium is where?
-High ____ activity
between the IEE and SR
-Alkaline Phosphatase Activity
These twol layers work together to form enamel?
IEE and SI
Bell Stage is determined when what two things happen?
Dental Lamina Breaks Down

Crown Patterning Determination
State the Vascularization and Innervation of
-Dentin
-Enamel
-Pulp
Enamel
-Not V or I

Dentin
-Not V, but is I

Pulp
-V and I
Crown Stage
-What marks the begininng of the crown stage?
Formation of Dentin
When does dentin formation start?

-Where?
At the end of the BEll Stage

-IEE and areas of cuspal development
What is the role of the IEE in dentinogenesis?
organizing activity (inductive signal) from BM to the cells of the mesenchyme
Process of Amelogenesis
-When
-Where
Crown Stage
At tip of cusp
Whatis the Nutritive supply during amelogenesis?
SI, SR and collaps of Enamel organ
Secretion of Matrix in Dentinogenesis is ____ and in Amelogenesis is ____ and ____.
Collagen Type I

Amelgenin and Enamelins